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BIO 140 Cresawn Original Notes for 9/6/16

by: Jay Ty

BIO 140 Cresawn Original Notes for 9/6/16 140

Marketplace > James Madison University > Biology > 140 > BIO 140 Cresawn Original Notes for 9 6 16
Jay Ty
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Hey guys! Thanks for checking out my first packet of notes! These notes are dealing with the first day of notes this week for Cresawn's BIO 140 class. These have been summarized and typed by me...
Foundations of Biology I
Kerry Creswawn
Class Notes
Biology, General Chemistry, cells, atoms, structure of atoms, elements, periodic table, Orbitals, electrons, Neutrons, Protons, Life Science, carbon and life, hydrogen bonds




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jay Ty on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 140 at James Madison University taught by Kerry Creswawn in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Foundations of Biology I in Biology at James Madison University.


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Date Created: 09/06/16
9.6.2016 BIO 140 Cresawn The Chemistry of Life What areas of expertise in Biology and what areas of expertise in Chemistry are required to evaluate an oil spill and design a cleanup plan? (Think about real world application) I. Cells a. Contain matter  Large Carbon Molecules (e.g. proteins) Made up of many Small C molecules (e.g. amino acids)  Each contain Carbon b. Contain energy  Energy from ATP  Requires movement of Electrons  Made up of Chemical Bonds  Form based on Electronegativity II. Definitions and Terms to Use In a Concept Map Later (Do Yourself) a. Mass b. Proton c. Neutron d. Electron- prefer a negative charge e. Charge- f. Electronegativity- Property of an atom that represents the attractive force the nucleus exerts on its electrons i. Electronegativity depends on the number of protons and distance of valence electrons from the nucleus. Atoms with significant difference in electronegativity will form polar bonds. g. Mass Number- the number of protons plus the number of neutrons h. Atomic Number- the number of protons i. Isotopes- Same element differentiated by the number of neutrons j. Shells- various energy levels of an atom k. Covalent bonds- bonds where valence electrons on the outer shells are shared to increase stability i. Ex: NH3 (ammonia), H2O (water) III. What’s the Deal with Carbon? a. Carbon takes up a large chunk of the requirements for life. But why? i. Carbon stabilizes itself very easily by orbital filling. One of its 2 electrons in the first orbital of the second shell moves so that all orbitals in the second shell have an electron. This makes it very versatile. Carbon is also VERY abundant, which makes way for Carbon-based life. ii. Carbon’s versatility goes beyond maximum number of bonds. It can form several different kinds of bonds. b. Life is “Carbon Based”. i. Carbon is an element ii. What are Elements? 1. Elements are made up of only ONE TYPE of atom, which are made up of a unique number of electrons, neutrons, and protons a. Ex: Carbon atom: has 6 protons, 6 neutrons, and 6 electrons. iii. What would happen to an atom’s atomic mass and electric charge if it gained or lost a proton, a neutron, or an electron? 1. Atomic Mass would increase if there are more neutrons (isotope) and decrease if there are less neutrons a. Gain Neutrons: No Effect on Charge, Mass Increases b. Lose Neutrons: No Effect on Charge, Mass Decreases 2. The charge would become more positive if there are more protons and less positive if there are less protons a. Gains Protons: More +, Mass Increases b. Lose Protons: More -, Mass Decreases 3. The charge would become more negative if there are more electrons and less negative if there are less electrons a. Gains Electrons: More -, Mass Not Affected b. Loses Elections: Less -, Mass Not Affected c. Carbon Dating: Uses ???? 14 to determine how old an animal is, based on its half-life d. Electrons have Energy (“Electron Volts”) i. Using the model where the green circle is the nucleus and the red electrons are close to the nucleus while the yellow electrons are further from the nucleus, which electrons are predicted to be least stable and which electrons do you predict to have more energy? 1. The Yellow electrons are least stable AND have more energy 2. Analogy: two people are on a ladder, Penny and Leonard. Penny (red electron) is closer to the ground (nucleus) and is therefore more stable. Leonard (yellow electron) is less stable because he is balancing at the top of the ladder and further from the ground (furthest from the nucleus and protons). It took him more energy to reach the top of the ladder (he has more energy). 3. Those various energy levels are called shells, which contain orbitals st a. 1 shell- 1 orbital (holds 2 electrons) b. 2 shell- 4 orbitals (Each orbital can hold 2 electrons) c. Spherical orbitals, dumbbell shaped orbitals d. Boehr Model- simplified view of the Quantum Model i. For this class, the quantum model will be important for understanding importance of Carbon to life. e. Periodic Table i. Columns- Vertical 1. Patterns- Same number of valence electrons ii. Rows- Horizontal 1. Patterns- Have the same number of shells, yet increase in the amount of valence electrons iii. How many unpaired electrons are in N? 3 iv. Atoms are most stable when shells are filled. So what can we do to allow N to reach this stability? 1. Nitrogen can form bonds in order to boost stability 2. Nitrogen is able to form three bonds with hydrogen, and stabilize its outermost shell! 3. Which element would most likely have bonding properties similar to nitrogen? a. Carbon b. Silicon c. Phosphorous d. Oxygen e. Sulfur i. Answer’s Explanation: Phosphorous has the same number of valence electrons, so it would behave just like Nitrogen. IV. Water Chemistry a. Water is considered a “good solvent” because it is polar i. Sodium chloride dissolves in solution because the sodium ions (Na+) and the chloride ions (Cl-) each become surrounded by water molecules. b. Hydrogen bonds- a hydrogen bond forms between two water molecules when the partial positive charge of a hydrogen atom is attached to the partial negative chare of an oxygen atom i. pH stands for power of hydrogen, which is a measurement of the hydrogen ion concentration in the body. The total pH scale ranges from 1 to 14, with 7 considered to be neutral. A pH less than 7 is said to be acidic and solutions with a pH greater than 7 are basic or alkaline 1. Greater H+ concentration- lower pH- more acidic 2. Lower H+ concentration- higher pH- less acidic


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