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Philosophy Week 1

by: Kirsten Notetaker

Philosophy Week 1 Phil 110

Kirsten Notetaker


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About this Document

-Introduction to Philosophy -important people, concepts for the semester etc.
J. Martin
Class Notes
philosophy, phil, intro to philosophy
25 ?




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kirsten Notetaker on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Phil 110 at California State University - San Marcos taught by J. Martin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Philosophy in Critical Thinking at California State University - San Marcos.


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Date Created: 09/06/16
Socrates (469­399 BCE)  ­ Asserted that a life w/o rational reflection and thought would not even be worth living for  a human being  ­ Allowed himself to be executed by the state of athens rather than be forced to give up his  philosophical activity  ­ Helped people be open minded  ­ Apology: dialogue by plato, explains the trial of socrates took place  ­ Mentor to plato  ­ Didnt write anything himself  ­ Accused of corrupting the youth and introducing new divinities  ­ Took his moral principles seriously, thats why he didnt just save his life    Aristotle (384­322 BCE)  ­ Primarily influenced logic  ­ Defines essential function of a human being as the rational activity of the soul  ­ Often thought of as a primary force in the development of logic and reasoning  ­ Truth is property of statement  ­ Introduced “common sense”    Rene Descartes (1596­1650)  ­ Early modern philosopher  ­ Holds that the fact that i am thinking thing is the primordial fact that testifies to my  existence  ­ “I think, therefore I am.”  ­ Very interested in finding certainty    Thomas Hobbes (1588­1679)  ­ English philosopher once wrote, “[Such] is the nature of men, that howeve they may  acknowledge many others to be more witty, or more eloquent, or more learned; yet they  will hardly believe there be many as wise as themselves.” (Leviathan)  ­ People think they dont need help ^^  ­ Human nature as a psychological fact, people are motivated by self interest  ­ Social contract theory: in the state of nature, life is nasty, brutish, and short  ­ If there is no stability, then it is a disaster  ­ He says one person should rule and will effectively enforce the rules    Critical Thinking vs. Ordinary Thinking  1. Ability to apply principles of logical reasoning to argue effectively for one’s views  2. Ability to recognize, classify and evaluate deductive and inductive arguments  3. Ability to objectively and fairly evaluate and criticize the arguments of other people  4. Ability to determine if a factual claim or set of claims is true of false  5. Ability to recognize and effectively respond to logical fallacies  6. Ability to recognize unconscious assumptions and biases in ourselves and others  7. Ability to see all sides of an issue and to seriously consider views that one may disagree  with  8. Ability to control one’s emotions, esp when arguing about controversial topics    What Critical Thinking is Not  ­ Criticizing or putting anyone down    3 Reasons for Improving  1. Gives us intellectual tools to make better choices as citizens, consumers, and individuals  2. Make you better at whatever it is you choose to spend your time doing  3. Better student and will have a positive effect on your academic success 


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