HPRB 1710 Week 3 Notes
HPRB 1710 Week 3 Notes HPRB 1710
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madeline Pearce on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HPRB 1710 at University of Georgia taught by Lindsay White in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Health and Wellness in Public Health at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/06/16
HPRB 1710 Week 3 Notes Aug 30 & Sep. 1 August 30 - Sleep ● Text book key takeaways: ○ 4.1 ■ scientists still don't know for certain why we need To sleep. Quite likely the functions are multiple. Dominant theory is that sleep is important for energy conservation, tissue growth and repair, and learning and memory. ○ 4.2 ■ Zeitgerbers such as light and melatonin levels influence your circadian clock ■ The circadian clock headquarters is located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei ■ two opposing processes- the homeostatic process and the Circadian process- determine whether you are awake or asleep ○ the homeostatic process is always on, keeping track of sleep debt ■ the Circadian processes active during the day and inactive during the dead of night ■ some hormones fluctuate over 24 hour cycle. melatonin, which regulates sleep comma is high at night. The stress hormone cortisol rises in the morning and declines at night ○ 4.3 ■ Sleep is divided into two states: non rapid eye movement (non-REM or NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM). NREM sleep is further divided into four stages. REM sleep is the fifth stage. ■ sleep is not a passive process. REM leave this particular Dynamic with the active brain waves and erratic changes in breathing and heart rates ■ most skeletal muscles are paralyzed in REM sleep, which keeps you from acting out your dreams 1 ○ 4.4 ■ Sleep needs vary across the life cycle. infants sleep more than half the day. Children and teens still need lots of sleep, though they often don't get enough. ■ circadian rhythms shift. circadian phase advances cause children and older adults to be morning larks. phase delays make many adolescents and young adults into night owls. ■ sleep architecture changes with age too. slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep decline slowly and steadily. older adults sleep less efficiently, with more time in stage 1 and Stage 2. ○ 4.5 ■ Chronic sleep deprivation has become epidemic in America. ■ if you restrict your sleep, you lose mental and physical performance and risk accidents ■ missing sleep activates the stress response and also makes it harder to cope with daily hassles ■ overtime, come die diabetes, and anxiety, and depression rises. ■ drowsiness is the last step before falling asleep. If you feel drowsy, get off the road. You may fall asleep at any minute, despite your best efforts. Let someone who's alert drive while you take a nap. ○ 4.6 ■ Sleep Disorders are all too common. Worse, too many people don't receive adequate treatment for these conditions. The consequences are excessive daytime sleepiness, reduced quality of life, and also other disorders associated with chronic sleep deprivation. ○ 4.7 ■ Stress overload, over scheduling, noise, ambient light, some substances, insomnia, and the number of health challenges can keep you from getting enough good quality sleep. ■ you can control a number of factors that influence sleep. maintaining regular sleep-wake schedules, avoiding sleep spoiling substances, in creating a peaceful sleep environment are key. 2 3 Lecture Notes ● HPA Axis - Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis ○ The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA axis or HTPA axis) is a complex set of direct influences and feedback interactions among three endocrine glands: the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland (a pea-shaped structure located below the hypothalamus), and the adrenal (also called "suprarenal") glands (small, conical organs on top of the kidneys). ● Why do we sleep? ○ Theories ■ Inactivity Theory ■ Energy Conservation Theory ■ Restorative Theory ■ Brain Plasticity Theory ○ Sleep Regulation ■ Homeostatic processes ● the more hours you're awake, the less hours you are asleep ● the pressure to sleep increases as the number of hours awake increases ■ circadian processes 4 ● independent of how long you have been awake or asleep ● “ clock dependent alerting” ● Sleep Stages ○ Stages 1-4 (NON-REM) ■ 1: Relatively light sleep ■ 2: Relatively light sleep ■ 3: Slow-wave sleep ■ 4: Slow-wave sleep ● Body relaxes ● Body temp declines ● Heart-rate and breathing slows ● Blood pressure declines ● Stress hormones decline ● Restorative hormones rise ○ REM ■ Rapid Eye Movement ● Low amplitude, high frequency brain wave lengths ● Vivid, internally produced sensations (physical) ● Motor activity of extremities is non-existent ● Frequent and rapid movement of the eyes (REM) ● Repetitive and illogical thoughts (vivid dreams) ● Sleep Across the Life Cycle ○ Circadian clock is delayed in adolescents ■ Children and older adults - wake up early ■ Teens and young adults - stay up late ○ Sleep Architecture ■ Structure of sleep stages ■ REM sleep frequency declines as you age ● Sleep Debt ○ Difference in the amount of sleep you get and the amount required to be alert during the day 5 ● Dangers of Sleep Deprivation ● Parasomnias ○ Sleepwalking ○ REM sleep behavior disorder. … ○ Nightmares. … ○ Night terrors. … ○ Nocturnal sleep-related eating disorder. … ○ Teeth grinding. ● Dyssomnias ○ Insomnia ○ Sleep Apnea ○ Narcolepsy ○ Recurrent Hypersomnia ○ Restless Leg Syndrome 6 September 01 - Mental Health ● Text book key takeaways ○ 5.1 ■ The pillars of good health also protect the brain, reducing risk of mental illness, cognitive decline, and stroke ■ an offshoot of psychology is called positive psychology and it explores the factors that allowed people not simply to escape disease but to thrive ■ a number of simple inexpensive practices Foster robust mental health and emotional health ○ 5.2 ■ Mental disorders are common and can lead to chronic disability. ■ Mental illness is underdiagnosed and undertreated. ■ Oftentimes, treatment can markedly decrease and even eliminate symptoms. ■ Although symptoms of psychological distress can arise in anyone, persistence and impairment of daily function indicate significant disorder. ■ Anxiety disorders are the most common type of mental illness and include generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, phobias, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. ■ Mood disorders include depression and bipolar disorder, a condition wherein mood can swing between depression and mania. ■ Some mental disorders, other medical conditions, and drugs and other substances can lead to psychosis, a disconnection from reality. ■ Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a behavioral problem with some combination of inattention, excessive physical activity, and impulsive behavior. ■ Autism spectrum disorder is an umbrella term for a group of neurodevelopmental disabilities that impair social interactions and interpersonal communication. People with these disorders usually engage in rigid, repetitive behaviors. 7 ■ ● What is mental health? ○ state of well-being ■ Productive ■ can cope with stressors ■ contribute to community ■ realize one's own abilities ○ emotional well-being ■ happiness, peacefulness ■ Self-acceptance ■ Purposefulness ■ social acceptance ■ connection to community ○ Functions of the brain are localized ■ the mind is what the brain does ■ nearly every region of the brain lights up even during a simple task such as walking ○ old brain ■ Medulla ■ Pons ■ Thalamus ■ reticular formation Cerebellum 8 ■ ○ Limbic system ■ Hypothalamus ■ Amygdala ■ Hippocampus ○ Hemispheres of the brain control higher functions such as creativity and Imagination ○ Cerebral cortex is divided into four different lobes and for smaller cortexes as well as association areas ● Psychology ○ study of mind and behavior ○ mental health is the ability to: ■ Think ■ process information ■ Reason ■ Judge ■ Problem solve ■ formulate plans ■ perceive life events and realistic ways ○ emotional health ■ corresponds to feelings and subjective response to events ● Jobs related to psychology ○ Psychologist ○ Psychiatrist ○ clinical social workers ○ psychiatric nurses ○ marriage and family therapists ○ Counselors ● Mental illness statistics ○ affects approximately 450 million people ○ causes more disability in the developed world than any other chronic condition ○ over 46% of Americans experience some form of mental illnesses during their lives ○ cost the United States over $300 billion a year 9 ○ ● Risk Factors ○ Family History ○ Stress and chronic illness ○ Obesity ○ Social isolation ○ Substance abuse ○ Malnutrition ● Neurodevelopmental Disorders ○ Examples ■ Intellectual disability ■ Autism ■ ADHD ■ Tourette’s syndrome ○ other information ■ generally manifests in early childhood ■ often characterized by developmental delays and missing of childhood milestones ○ Treatment ■ Therapy ■ often highly individualized ■ some medications ● schizophrenia / other psychotic disorders ○ Examples ■ Schizophrenia ■ Hallucinations ○ Treatment ■ Medication ■ very difficult to treat long-term ■ medical decisions are difficult to make as patients are not in touch with reality ● Depressive disorders ○ Examples ■ major depressive disorder ■ depressive disorder due to co-occurring medical condition ○ other information ■ leading cause of disability in the United States ■ 2.4 million adolescents have at least one depressive episode each year ■ 15 million adults have at least one depressive episode each year 10 ■ ○ Treatment ■ Therapy ■ Medication ■ “At-Home” CAM ● Exercise ● Meditation ● Yoga ● Anxiety Disorders ○ Examples ■ Generalized anxiety disorder ■ Social anxiety disorder ■ Panic Disorder ○ Other information ■ MOST COMMON mental illness ■ Only ⅓ of sufferers seek treatment ■ Costs the United States $42 Billion per year ○ Treatment ■ Therapy ■ Medication ● Trauma and Stressor related disorders ○ Examples ■ PTSD ■ Reactive attachment disorder ○ Other Information ■ Fight, flight, or freeze ■ Two people experience events differently, one may develop PTSD when the other does not ■ high rates of suicide ○ Treatment ■ Therapy ■ some medication ■ Change of environment ● Substance abuse and addictive disorders ○ Examples ■ alcohol use disorder ■ Opioid use disorder ■ tobacco use disorder ○ other information ■ both cause and effect of other mental illnesses ■ everyone should be screened ■ extremely high relapse rates 11 ■ ○ Treatment ■ detox programs ■ Therapy ■ Medications ■ Exercise ● Neurocognitive disorders ○ Examples ■ Dementia ■ Alzheimer's ○ other information ■ recently published clinical studies have introduced a medication that destroys plaque build up in the early stages ○ Treatment ■ none officially ■ Prevention ● staying Physically Active ● staying mentally active ● being social ● Personality disorders ○ Example ■ borderline personality disorder ■ narcissistic personality disorder ■ antisocial personality disorder ○ other information ■ clear influence of the environment and genetics ■ biosocial development theory ○ Treatment ■ Therapy ■ some of the hardest conditions to treat ■ medicine will treat co-occurring mental illnesses, but not target the personality disorder specifically 12
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