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by: Kortlen H.


Kortlen H.
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

These notes are from the lectures from class and cover what is going to be on the next exam. (Doesn't include notes from the reading)
World Civilizations I
Jordan Begnaud
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kortlen H. on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 101 at University of Louisiana at Lafayette taught by Jordan Begnaud in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see World Civilizations I in History at University of Louisiana at Lafayette.

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Date Created: 09/06/16
History 101 Week #1 Thursday, August 25,2016 Culture: the way of life ofthe human group. It includes all ofthe learned and standardized forms of behavior that one uses and others in one’sgroup expect and recognize.  a group ofgroup ofpeoplewho have certain agreed uponways ofdoing things and rules ofbehavior Civilization: that kind ofculture which includes the use ofwriting, the presenceof cities, a wide political organization, and the development of occupational specialization  its only when a culture contains all ofthese, is it considered a civilization o the use ofwriting: they have to beliterate o the presenceof cities: they have to live in these kind ofenvironments (not nomadic peopleorso on) o A wide political organization: they have sometype ofgovernment o Occupationalspecialization: noteveryone doesthe same job. they specialize in certain areas  not EVERY culture is a civilization 1. All cultures orsocietieshavecertainthings in common. No matter how different orfar apart in the world they are, they all are basically involved in solving certain problems ortaking care ofcertain needs  6 commonneedsthat everysocietyhas to takecareof 1. the needto makea living  the need of foodand shelter/ to provide foroffspring o if you don’ttake careof this one, nothing else will happen 2. the needforlaw and order  someway to prevent conflict from tearing apart the whole society o someway to protectagainst external threats and enemies 3. the needforsometype ofsocialorganization  organizing the peoplein oneway oranother  sometype ofstructure through which people canwork and make a living and function o ex. The idea of balancing the rights ofthe individual against the rights ofthe group as a whole. o In someolder traditional societies, the group prevailed in that the wider societydetermined who someonemarried orwhat one could dofor a living. In more modern/western cultures, the tendency is to stressor emphasize the rights ofthe individual 4. the needforknowledgeandlearning  there has to besomeway ofpreserving knowledge gained though experience and transmitting it downthe generation/offspring sothat what has been learned can be spread o with this, you don’thave to invent the wheel over and overagain becauseoncesomething has been learned, it is preserved  education 5. the needforself-expression  the arts and whatever form they take o from the very beginning, human beings have always needed a way to express themselves creatively though art, dance, music, drawing etc.  responding creatively to their environment 6. the needforreligiousexpression(in a broad sense) (meaning philosophy also)  the attempt to answer the question why o what are we doing here? o what is the purposeofhuman life? o Why is there something instead ofnothing? 2. Cultures orsocietiesarenevercompletelystatic.Theyalwayschange overtime o It may bevery slowly, but none ofthem just stand still. o They are always influenced byother environments and people, whether positive ornegative 3. Geographyplays a role in how a civilization develops.The environment has a big influence. o ex. all of the very first civilizations that evolved all emerged in ariver valley (all next to a large river). Obviously being in a river valley took a part in how they went about their lives. Living in a river valley had something to dowith how thosepeopledeveloped a civilization.  but notall people next to a river valley developed a civilization.  It’s a combination ofenvironment and people’sparticular responseto it. It’sa little of both STONEAGE  Talking aboutthe era ofprehistory. Called this because peopledid not write, sothey didn’trecord their thoughts and deeds.What is known ofthis period has to bediscovered through physical remains  The stoneage goes back couple million years (very long period) o called the stoneage becausepeople began to make weapons and tools out ofstone  Within the stoneage, two distinctive periodsare: 1. Paleolithicperiod(old stoneage) o give ortake 250,000 years ago 2. Neolithicperiod (new stoneage) o about12,000 years ago PaleolithicEra 1. In this era,people followeda hunter andgathererlifestyle o they derived their subsistencebyhunting and byforaging  as a result, they generally practice a nomadic way of life (they didn’tsettle down, they always moved around. Following the different animals they were hunting and always looking for new places to forage) 2.Organized(the waythey operated) o The extended family (much larger than mother, father, brothers,and sisters) o generally, these family groups would band together to form tribes or clans 3.Thesepeople weregenerallyegalitarian o meaning: people were more less equal. There weren't many great differences in status, rank, class, orpower. Everyone was pretty equal  You cansee why that would bebecausewhen you are just hunting and gathering, and following a nomadic lifestyle, there aren’t many opportunities to acquire much wealth ormaterial possessionsbecauseyouare always moving and always accumulating the food youneed to get through the day and then you doit again the next day.  Everybody is basically doing the same function, either hunting orgathering, sothere really isn’tdifferent things forothers to do o there were groupsof elders orchief ofsometype, that would sometimes make decisions, butother than that, everyone was fairly equal  males and females had different jobs and there was someover lap  generally, men would hunt and the women would do mostofforaging and looking after children 4.Theydiscoveredhorticulture o Basically small scale planting o figured out that if you putseedsin the ground and waited around, things would happen  they did understand this, but only ona small scale 5.Languageis developed o allowed them to communicate a lot better, but also allowed them to establish more sophisticated organization  they could communicate and organize themselves better now, as a result, becomemuch more sophisticated 6.Life afterDeath o at certain burial sites, the bodieswere buried in such a way with certain objects that it looked like they had been prepared for future existence  showed that they could think beyond the here and now and could think about what happens later on, not just in the present 7. At the end, thesepeople are ableto function pretty well o can predictfunction and behavior ofanimals o in terms of their horticulture and foraging, they can predictthe seasonsand nature and how it functions o able to organize themselves in more sophisticated ways Neolithic Era (about 9,000 B.C.) 1. This era wouldbe the biggestadvanceorleapthat human being ever makein terms oftheir future development. o Bigger than the industrial revolution 2. Whathappens in this era is pretty much whatmakesallofthat possible 3. The big breakthroughofthe Neolithicperiod wasagriculture o this didn’t happeneverywhere among all people, butbroke outhere and there o there are still people todaythat follow the hunter/gatherer way oflife o but forthe first time, youhave societies that derive majority of their foodfrom farming and agriculture  ona march larger scale than just planting a few things in the Paleolithic period o this agriculture makes civilization possible  there has never been a civilization that grew up that wasn’t basedon agriculture  agriculture is soimportant becausewith it, youget a food surplus  with it, youcan producemore than youneed right now, you have a surplus o in the Paleolithic era, you basically ate what you had right then and there and had to go looking for more the next day o this makes fora much more stable life  you canplan ahead for the future and ensure that youcan sustain yourselves  you don’thave keep moving around and hunting becausenowyou have everything you need in oneplace  it makes it possiblefor settled communities  with foodsurplus, you canprovide fora much greater number of peoplewhich allows you to provide forvillages then cities  also makes possibleforoccupational specialties  now that noteveryone has to beso focusedoncollecting food,people can nowhave other jobs 4. People,generallylived in villages o started settling in villages and would farm the surrounding land  wheat, barley, etc. o they invented the stonesickle forharvesting o along with farming, they began to domesticate animals  goats, sheep, cows,and pigs to provide meat, clothing, wool, milk, etc.  domesticating the animals was much more predictable and stable becauseyou didn’thave to go looking for a cowand slaughter it for milk, it was right there All ofthis is progress,butall progresscomeswith its ownset ofproblems 5. Forthe first time, peoplebeganto engageinwar o peoplebegan fighting against each other  what indicates that peoplewere familiar with warfare is that their villages had very sturdywalls o whenever you seewalls, that means war o they are protecting themselves against people, not animals  in these villages with these surpluses, youcan acquire wealth and with wealth, somebodyelse always wants it o living in settled communities with large numbers ofpeople in closeproximities, communicable diseases canspread very quickly, resulting in epidemics 6. You beginto seethe beginning of ranks andhierarchalstatuses o somepeople are higher up than others  when you have occupationalspecializations, somepeople’s jobs are higher up becausethey are more important  they are of higher value  generally, it was the warrior and the priest that were highest up and had the mostprestige o warrior becausehe protectedagainst enemies, and priest becausehe was the intermediary between the godsand the people.  ex. he would performceremonies sothat they would have goodharvest  peoplebegan to acquire wealth  more money brings you to a higher status  slavery began to appear  somepeople were in bondageto others Societies are starting to look more and more like the kind oflife that we live 7. Jericho o Located in what is now Israel o the really ancient city ofJericho was one ofthe world’s oldest agricultural villages  had a population ofabout 2500 (pretty goodnumber forpeople backthen)  they lived in mud wall housesthat had multiple rooms o the stone around Jericho were incredibly big (20ft high and 6ft thick) which showed that they were clearly ready for something 8. Sincethey werewheatandbarley farmers,they learnedhow to brew beer o Basically kind ofliquid bread  It’s the same ingredients, just in liquid form This basicallysetsthe stage.It’s reallyonly a matter oftime beforesome people orothercomesalong andcreatesacivilization. Someofthe requirements arealreadyin place. Somany aspectsoflife that weren’t possiblein the Paleolithic period, are now possiblein the Neolithic period


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