INST 2100.005 - Chapter One: The Past in the Present
INST 2100.005 - Chapter One: The Past in the Present INST 2100
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ian Layden on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to INST 2100 at University of North Texas taught by Jonathan Brent Richards in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Intro to International Studies in International Studies at University of North Texas.
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Date Created: 09/06/16
Tuesday, September 6, 2016 Intro to International Studies 1. Introduction I. Globalization: The Process of bringing regions of the world together. - Globalization is important to understand because the world has never been so integrated, nothing is only local in the modern era. • The proliferation of information allows people on the opposite sides of the globe to communicate and experience with each other. - Examples of globalization include theArab spring, the boom in the world economy since WWII, and workers in foreign countries having the ability to send money home (remittance). - Thomas Friedman… The Lexus and The Olive Tree • The lexus represents the benefits of a globalized economy. • The olive tree represents the pressures such as the economy in a modern context on local cultures and communities. • These holding onto traditional customs typically still embrace new innovations brought to them by globalization. - Globalization can also be referred to as “an ‘intensification of worldwide social relations which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away’” (22). - Globalization and International Studies is a multi-disciplinary area of study meaning that it can be approached in various forms and context: anthro-, political, geographical, historical, etc. - Historians are useful by writing objective historical accounts, are of bias and typically try to form a consensus as to how things have happened. • However, with the internet it is easier to access multiple depictions of history that can be diluted with many kinds of bias and propaganda. - Geography seeks to analyze special relations such as population density, demographic statistics, death-tolls and similar categories of the like. ▯1 Tuesday, September 6, 2016 - Political science attempts to analyze the relationships between citizens and the instructions that govern these people. • This are has become increasingly complex in past decades as globalization and there becomes a more involved consensus that international cooperations housed be the norm, as well as conflict on a larger scale. Both in armed conflict and in non-tangible areas such as the financial sector. II. Culture:Alearned system of meanings through which people ardent themselves in the world. - Anthropology examines how cultures are, come about, and interact with each other in the world. • Anthropology encompasses politics, religion, customs, food, and much more in all the regions of the world. III. Localization: people localize commodities, services, and ideas that enter their communities through globalization and in turn make them their own. - Economists study who gets what and how. • So, how resources are divided up in society and their purposes in society. 2. Part One: The Disciplines of International Studies Chapter One: The Past in the Present - Historical Interpretation in International Conflict A. Introduction I. Political and diplomatic history: That concerned with the study of power and power relationships. - Historians utilize all disciplines of International studies to craft a narrative to aide the study of international relations. • The goal is to create an accurate depiction of the past. - Political history helps us to understand the current political climate and the causation of current affairs better. ▯2 Tuesday, September 6, 2016 • Acountry’s political history can often give clues as to a country’s policy and actions in the present and future. II. Economic history: The study of the exchange of goods and services. - Economic historians look at past economic trends to predict future economic growth and recession as well as inform policy makers on how to make better decisions. III.Labor history:Afocus, of economic history, on the working class and the relationships between those workers, their management, and the government. IV. Cultural and social history: The study of art, sports, religion, urban and rural society, immigration, race, families/clans, populations, gender, and diseases. • This branch of history provides in-depth knowledge on human interpretations with the land, each other, illness, and other factors. V. Intellectual history: The concentration, in history, on the development of ideologies and the influence of them on culture and society. • Feminism, marxism, liberalism, religions. - The progress of civilization relieson accurate histories, especially when it comes to areas such as science and technology. • Technological innovation places a crucial role in modern global affairs in both medicine and politics. VI. Environmental history: The concentration, in history, of people’s integration with their natural surrounding. • The argument of climate change has heavily influenced this depiction and branch of history. B. What is History? - “History is a written, oral, or visual reconstruction and interpretation of past human endeavors based on available sources” (41). - While most histories maintain a general consensus of major events, many differ on “causation, interpretation, and significance.” - The latin historia literally means “to inquire”. ▯3 Tuesday, September 6, 2016 - The oldest written histories are believed to be only 1,000s of years old. - The oldest histories are typically mythical in nature sought to explain the meaning of life. • These philosophies merges into today’s modern religions. - Many of the oldest written histories are war epics, dealing the conquests ofAlexander The Great and Charlemagne. - Most history recorded up to the 20th Century was political history. • written accounts of society’s most powerful members in order to justify heir actions and their rule. • Accuracy came second to portraying a protagonist. • History before the 20th Century was strongly Eurocentric and biased towards white people. - During the 19th Century, some historians began to challenge this previous method of documenting history by approaching it in a more empirical sense. • Influenced by the Enlightenment and humanism/secularism. • History should be a presentation of evidence. • Karl Marx… “scientific truth of class conflict.” • This sees history shift to “social science”. VII. Revisionist history: The re-interpretation of the historical record, of the orthodox views about a historical event, the evidence, and the motivations and decisions of participants in the event. • Revisionists often claim that orthodox views of history were crafted to create a sense of unity/national pride and were not always the absolute or even partial truth. • The truthful depiction of racism in the histories of the United States. • The bigger picture about a united Europe behind anti-Semitism pre-WWII. - Revisionism essentially examines new and previously uncovered evidence to re-envision the past. VIII. Postmodernist history: The denial that any objective history has ever existed. ▯4 Tuesday, September 6, 2016 • Postmodernist argue that no matter how hard we try we can never truly understand the events of the past. • When history is viewed out of context we run the risk of imposing our own beliefs or notions on accounts. • There is NO objective historical truth - While historians agree with this accusation to a point, they make a “good-faith effort” to utilize all the source material, access all the evidence, and present the as-close-as-possible-to- objective narrative. C. Historians and Their Tools IX. Historical data is often thrown into two categories: A. Primary sources: Direct evidence about the past from someone involved in the past event, without an intermediary’s interpretation. • examples of “primary sources” include artifacts, letters, autobiographies, official documents, etc. • Objective data that is obtained without bias or the knowledge that it will be used as historical evidence. B. Secondary sources: Oral or written narratives derived from primary sources. • Examples include newspapers, journal articles and newspaper articles, books, and biographies. X. Historiography:Ahistory of histories. - When selecting sources, historians have to make informed judgements about a sources reliability. D. Politics, Power, and History - Victors in power struggles typically are the ones who get to decide how history is framed and frame it almost always in their favor. ▯5 Tuesday, September 6, 2016 - While the history of the oppressed has lawyers existed, it has typically been overshadowed by the existed, it has typically been overshadowed by the dominant Eurocentric and mythological versions until recently. • History of the defeated can often be just as biased as that of “dead white guys”. - Leaders distort the written record of things to paint themselves as heroes or “the good guys” of history. - Historians make semantic choices that often reveal their bias. - When nationalists are confronted with criticism of their people, they react with denial and verbal attacks on other people. XI. Nationalists history:Aset of beliefs about political legitimacy and cultural identity. E. What is Good History? XII. Popular histories: less accurate narratives of the past, but they have a great capacity to influence public opinion. • Some sources are more useful and dependable than others. • If authors have to convince a publisher to take on their work, they will possibly be persuaded to embellish their work. F. Theories of History XIII. Balance of power: National security is enhanced when military capability is distributed so that no one state is strong enough to dominate all others. XIV. Providential theory: The theory that the meaning of life is derived from the belief in higher powers and that they can influence events or that the reason things have happened was at the disposal of a deity. • This view reduces the importance of the concepts of free-will and personal responsibility. • This should be left to philosophers and theologians. XV. Progressive theory: New ideas challenge old traditions, the idea that a new synthesis would result to develop better political, economic, and social structures. • Through education and rising standards of living, people can rid society of past wrongs. ▯6 Tuesday, September 6, 2016 • Aused rationale for universal education and liberal democracy. • Marxism XVI. Cyclical theory: Discernible patterns in the past that are likely to repeat themselves. • This offers a more pessimistic view of history. • Example: economies have a constant cycle of growth and recession. - Theories of history bring rationales and meanings to people’s daily lives. - Histories attempt to identify patters of the past to help us understand the present and predict the future. - Historians create a certain focus on the past to create theories of causation. G.Are There Lessons of History? - Policy makers “invoke” histories to justify policy and their decision-making. - There is this “notion that history is something we can know and build protective models from” (69). - Historical analysis can create a narrow-minded attitude about thinking for the future. - When we place to much emphasis on learning from the past this can give the common imagination a sort of “tunnel-vision” and limit how we think about our current problems and predict how the future will turn out. - Historical events cannot be re-created, the social sciences are not an “exact” science. - Policy makers are often blinded by the notion that history has absolutely no implication on the present or future. H. Summary of Chapter One In this chapter of the International Studies textbook we focus primarily on history and the various forms it can come in when studying international relations. We talked about the reliance policy-makers and academics have on history as well as the bias that often comes in any type of historical analysis or text we might italic to better understand how the world functions as one global community. ▯7 Tuesday, September 6, 2016 We really get the sense that this book wants us to look at International Studies through the lens of history and take into account what we know about the past, while at the same time not taking all “historical evidence” at face value. The author presents us with many types of history, views on these histories and then further theories on history itself such as “revisionism” and “postmodernism”. I personally believe that those who wrote this book have done the following and are prescribing the reader do the same and that is to be postmodernist in approach bit not fully in practice. What I mean by this is that we should look at all historical approaches; mythological, till the 19th Century, revisionist, and scientific; then assess for ourselves the facts and evidence. We should use what we can determine is true or what must be true about history in order to better understand current affairs, how to predict then prepare and plan for future events. The book itself however counterbalances itself by stating that no amount of history can completely help us for now or the near future. History is not an exact science when it comes to study and historical events, almost 100% of the time, do not repeat themselves in the exact same way that they occur originally. The main thing that should be taken away from this chapter is that while we can utilize history to its fullest extent to discuss the current climate of politics, economics, social, academic, and environmental relations we can only affirm ourselves in this history to a certain degree. I. Definitions I. Globalization: The Process of bringing regions of the world together. II. Culture:Alearned system of meanings through which people ardent themselves in the world. III. Localization: people localize commodities, services, and ideas that enter their communities through globalization and in turn make them their own. I. Political and diplomatic history: That concerned with the study of power and power relationships. II. Economic history: The study of the exchange of goods and services. III. Labor history:Afocus, of economic history, on the working class and the relationships between those workers, their management, and the government. IV. Cultural and social history: The study of art, sports, religion, urban and rural society, immigration, race, families/clans, populations, gender, and diseases. ▯8 Tuesday, September 6, 2016 V. Intellectual history: The concentration, in history, on the development of ideologies and the influence of them on culture and society. VI. Environmental history: The concentration, in history, of people’s integration with their natural surrounding. VII. Revisionist history: The re-interpretation of the historical record, of the orthodox views about a historical event, the evidence, and the motivations and decisions of participants in the event. VIII. Postmodernist history: The denial that any objective history has ever existed. IX. Historical data is often thrown into two categories: A. Primary sources: Direct evidence about the past from someone involved in the past event, without an intermediary’s interpretation. B. Secondary sources: Oral or written narratives derived from primary sources. X. Historiography:Ahistory of histories. XI. Nationalists history:Aset of beliefs about political legitimacy and cultural identity. Popular histories: less accurate narratives of the past, but they have a great capacity to XII. influence public opinion. XIII. Balance of power: National security is enhanced when military capability is distributed so that no one state is strong enough to dominate all others. XIV. Providential theory: The theory that the meaning of life is derived from the belief in higher powers and that they can influence events or that the reason things have happened was at the disposal of a deity. XV. Progressive theory: New ideas challenge old traditions, the idea that a new synthesis would result to develop better political, economic, and social structures. XVI. Cyclical theory: Discernible patterns in the past that are likely to repeat themselves. ▯9
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