Chem 340 notes week 2
Chem 340 notes week 2 Chemistry 340
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Leslie Pike on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chemistry 340 at Western Kentucky University taught by Rathnayake in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Organic Chemistry in Organic Chemistry at Western Kentucky University.
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Date Created: 09/06/16
An alkane contains only sigma bonds. An alkene contains at least one double bond. An alkyne contains at least one triple bond. All three of these are hydrocarbons, they contain C and H only. A polar covalent bond is when the EN difference of two atoms is greater than 0.5 and less than 1.5. Carbon-fluorine bond is polar covalent. The electrons are shared, but they are shared unevenly. Functional groups: Methyl: CH 3 Ethyl: C2H5— Propyl: C3H 7 Butyl: C4H 9 Phenyl: benzene ring attached to R group Benzyl: Benzene ring with one carbon between it and the R group Alcohol: --OH Amine: --NH 3 Ether: --C—O—C— Carbonyl: C==O (Dr. Hill is not looking for this) Aldehyde: carbonyl bonded to H and R Ketone: carbonyl bonded to R and R Carboxylic acid: carbonyl bonded to R and OH Ester: carbonyl bonded to R and OR Amide: amine bonded to one carbonyl and two R groups (these R groups can be hydrogens) Nitrile: C triple bonded to N Primary, secondary, and tertiary: For alkyl halides and alcohols: o A primary alkyl halide (or alcohol) has one carbon and two hydrogens bonded to the carbon that has the halide or OH o A secondary alkyl halide (or alcohol) has two carbons and one hydrogens on said carbon o A tertiary alkyl halide (or alcohol) has three carbons and zero hydrogens on said carbon For amines: o A primary amine has one carbon and two hydrogens bonded to nitrogen o A secondary amine has two carbons and one hydrogen bonded to nitrogen o A tertiary amine has three carbons and no hydrogens bonded to nitrogen Intermolecular forces (larger force = higher boiling point): Dipole-dipole: molecule must be polar (acetone, formaldehyde, water, etc.) the positive end of one molecule draws the negative end of another molecule. Hydrogen bond: a stronger dipole-dipole, must have hydrogen bonded to nitrogen or oxygen Dispersion: all molecules have this, the larger the molecule the stronger the force. Helium has the lowest boiling point of all molecules because it is a small, single atom and thus has no dipole forces and extremely low dispersion forces.
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