HIST101: Chapter 3 Notes
HIST101: Chapter 3 Notes HIST 101
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kalie Lanik on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 101 at Colorado State University taught by Dr. Diane Margolf in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Western Civilization, Modern in History at Colorado State University.
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HIST 101: Western Civilization from Antiquity to the Age of Expansion Chapter 3: Archaic and Classical Greece Greek history begins around 2,000 BC Bronze Age Greece – The Minoans o Indo-Europeans settle around Aegean Sea on the island of Crete o Minoan civilization used metals such as bronze for tools/weapons (hence Bronze Age) o Minoan culture discovered 20 c. by Sir Arthur Evans English archaeologist Names the civilization after King Minos (Crete legend) Discovered a palace complex at Knossos o Relied heavily on sea trade (with Egypt and Greek mainland) o Invented a writing system; 2 distinct scripts were found as evidence Linear A: in use by 1800 BC. The un-deciphered script of Minoan Crete Linear B: appeared c. 300 years later. Script of the Mycenaean civilization o Palace at Knossos was for royal kings who ran the society o 1450 BC Collapse of Minoans (arguable cause) Tsunami triggered a volcano to erupt Mycenaeans invade Chapter 3: Bronze Age Greece – The Mycenaeans (c. 1600 – 1100 BC) o Site excavated in 1870’s on Mainland Greece o Supposedly ruled by King Agamemnon Commander during Trojan War o Created a commercial network (sea trade) o Warrior society o Conquered Crete and some Aegean islands o Unable to unify into an empire Because Greece is spread out Internal divisions of military leaders o Linear B was their main script and describes the supply lists for armies Other tablets include grain ration and armor allocations o Mycenaean culture seen within Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey Scholars have debated the historical significance of these poems o The society ended around 1200 BC HIST 101: Western Civilization from Antiquity to the Age of Expansion Potentially invaded by sea peoples (Assyrians) or the Dorians Environmental factors Internal conflict Dark Age Greece (1200 – 800 BC) o After the collapse of the Mycenaeans o No evidence of writing o Greeks began migrating throughout the Aegean Settled throughout the coast of Asia Minor and modern day turkey o Many Mycenaean regions still occupied but no kings or central economies o Revival of agriculture/trade/commerce o Swithh from bronze to iron (cheaper) o 8 c. BC Greeks began writing again o Adoption of the Phoenician alphabet o Oral tradition kept Greek culture alive Chapter 3: Homer and Homeric Society o Homer wrote epic poems based on oral traditions passed down called the Iliad and the Odyssey Date of composition debated Demonstrate cultural values o Iliad Story of the Trojan War, Achilles demonstrates desired qualities in a man Kidnapping of the Queen of Sparta Helen Husband Menelaus tries to retrieve his wife and asks help from his brother Agamemnon (king of Mycenae) Agamemnon attacks troy for 10 years and finally sacks the city with the help of Odysseus and the creation of the Trojan Horse o Odyssey Tale of Odysseus after the war Takes 10 years to return to his wife in Ithaca o Arête = excellence Epic heroes display this characteristic The Polis o After the dark ages was the Archaic Age of Greece o Polis = Greek city-state Independent community of people HIST 101: Western Civilization from Antiquity to the Age of Expansion Mountain regions and various islands promoted these communities Varied in size and power o New archaic military system based on Hoplites Hoplites = armed infantry men with a hoplon (shield) Would march into battle in the phalanx formation (an organized rectangle formation normally 8 men deep) o Usually was successful in battle o Greeks took original culture from the poleis o Between 750 and 500 BC Greeks massively colonized in search of fertile land o Greek colonies founded in Southern Italy Tarentum (Taranto), Neapolis (Naples), Syracuse This establishment of colonies was called Magna Graecia Caused diffusion of trade and industry Chapter 2: Culture of the Archaic Age Influence of art from the Near east in Greek Poleis o Kouros statues show striking similarities to Egyptian statues Greek Poetry during this time was mostly lyric o Lyric poetry concerns love/emotion o Sappho from Lesbos was a famous poet Rare successful woman with access to literary education and a career as a poet The word lesbian comes from Sappho’s isle of Lesbos Homosexuality was common and accepted and Sappho’s love poetry was dedicated to male and female lovers o Hesiod Famous poet who wrote Works and Days and Theogony Thogony describes the genealogy and origin of the Greek Gods This narrative solidified many beliefs of Greek Gods Tyranny o The word tyranny did not always have such a negative connotation and used to be defined as someone who simply took power by force o This was a common for of political rule HIST 101: Western Civilization from Antiquity to the Age of Expansion o Oedipus Tyrant of Thebes o Tyrants tended to pass down power unto their sons and grandsons o Tyranny did not last because the people didn’t really favor it Mostly abandoned by 6 c. BC o Aristocratic oligarchies were demolished and different types of Gov. were established in different polis Expanded oligarchies Democracies Sparta o Polis located in region of Laconia o Grew to be a dominant military society o Helots = citizens who were captured and worked as slaves bound to the land which allowed others to form a professionalized military o According to legend Spartans were given their political, economic, military system by Lycurgus (who received it from the Gods) o Military dominated the Peloponnese for centuries o Militarization of Spartiates began at birth Elders would decide whether the child was unhealthy or weak (and therefore exposed on a mountainside) or healthy Children were returned to their mothers until age 6 o Agoge = education system of Sparta (begins at age 6) Boys are sent to live in community Barracks with men Endured intense and harsh training & education for military discipline At age 20 boys would be enrolled in the army At age 30 men are allowed to vote and marry Served until age 60 Females remain with their mothers Maintained the household Educated and encouraged to exercise to promote health/fertility Allowed to compete physically like the men o Community > individuality o Marked graves were only for those who died for the sake of the state o Well organized politics HIST 101: Western Civilization from Antiquity to the Age of Expansion Oligarchy Dual kingship (two kings from diff. families: the Agiads and Eurypondids Responsible for military and religious affairs Council of elders = gerusia 28 citizens >60 years old Apella = matters presented to all male citizens for a vote Ephors = male citizens > 30 elected as judges that would supervise the education and conduct of everyone o Rejected outside influence i.e. Trade, foreigners Discouraged from travel and art Athens o Dates back to the Neolithic age th o United polis within Attica by 7 c. BC o Ekklesia = state assembly All freeborn male citizens could vote o Archons = judges in court o Philosophy, art, and literature flourished Reforms of Draco, Solon, and Cleisthenes o Economic/political crisis begins at the end of the 7 c. BC Farmers sold into debt-slavery, not able to pay loans Protest of lower class o Draco 1 attempt to fix the crisis Enforced the death penalty for nearly every unlawful infraction Caused the issues to worsen The word draconian comes from Draco o Solon was appointed archon (leading magistrate) in 594 BC Instituted the Seisachteia = “the shaking-off of burdens” He cancelled private debts and debt-slavery which helped the lower class but not the rich aristocrats So he redistributed land to make the rich people happy too Let more people be involved in politics The system before Solon enforced everyone to be born into their political status therefore not allowing for much political variation Solon changed it to be based on wealth instead This eliminated the aristocratic monopoly on politics HIST 101: Western Civilization from Antiquity to the Age of Expansion He created the boule = a council of 400 men who decided the agenda for meetings of all citizens The change of process in election and participation of Gov. reformed the traditional rule of the elite Solon empowered individual citizens promoting democratic ideas People had the right to appeal in court Citizens had some control over their own justice After enacting these reforms Solon left Athens This resulted in a power vacuum o 546 BC Pisistratus seizes control and becomes a tyrant of Athens He embarked on a large scale building project Promoted cultural economic and architectural advancement Gave many poor people jobs which helped the economy When his sons Hippias and Hipparchus gained power they ruled harshly and unjustly; they were overruled by the Alcmaeonids o Cleisthenes (member of the Alcmaeonid family) gained power in 508 BC Developed democracy – he is known as the “father of Athenian democracy” Democracy allowed full political participation to a small percent of the population They weren’t allowed to vote or be in office He divided the society into regions of neighborhood and villages called demes Each deme elected council members The council members were then randomly picked in a place drawing He expanded the boule from 400 to 500 Political participation was no longer based on wealth but instead based on where the citizen lives Chapter 3: Classical Greece Clash between Persians and Greeks By 6 c. BC Persians conquered and controlled the SW portion of Asia minor where Greek colonies resided Lonians = citizens in SW portion of Asia Mino o They revolted unsuccessfully in 499 BC 490 BC Persians invade Greece HIST 101: Western Civilization from Antiquity to the Age of Expansion The Battle of Marathon o Persian invasion against the Athenians and Platean allies o Greeks won the battle due to the phalanx formation strategy o Greek troops led by Miltiades and forced Persia out of Greece o Story of Pheidippides Ran 155 miles to Sparta to Athena to Marathon to Athens and declaring “Nike!” (“Victory”) and then dying Themistocles was elected as a new archon leader o Developed a navy and built c. 200 triremes (ships with banks of 3 oars) 480 BC The Persian King Xerxes invades Greece o Led about 150,000 ground troops and 700 ships o c. 300 Spartans and 900 Greeks led by King Leonidas to meet the Persians at Thermopylae o The Athenian navy met the Persians off the coast of the straights of Artemisium -- held off the Persians for 2 days Were betrayed the Greek Ephialtes o Athenians abandoned Athens and fled to the island of Salamis o Themistocles reorganized his navy and met the Persians once again o The battle of Salamis was a Greek victory Xerxes retreated but left a Persian force in Thessaly 479 BC Spartans defeated a Persian force at the Battle of Plataea NW of Athens A Greek force followed the Persians to Mycale and expelled the Persians from expanding into Greece The Delian League = a confederation of Greek poleis who prepared for another Persian invasion o Headquarters at the sacred island of Delos o All officers/commanders were Athenian o Defeated Persia fleet army in 469 BC Some poleis withdrew from the League after this battle o Athens attacked these cities o The Delia League became an instrument of Athenian imperialism Athens was under leadership of Pericles o Democracy thrived o This time period often called “Golden Age of Athens” or “Age of Pericles” Theatre and philosophy flourished Radical democracy HIST 101: Western Civilization from Antiquity to the Age of Expansion Ecclesia = sovereign entity of the state Passed all laws and made all decisions on peace/war policies o Ostracism = temporary banishment from city by popular vote Exiled for 10 ears System of check and balance This system spread throughout other poleis in the Delian League o Athenian influence spread to Sparta o 454 BC moved treasury of the league from Delos to Athens o Pericles built new temples and buildings most famously the Parthenon o Athens built an empire and spread democracy throughout the poleis in the Delian League without consent of allied states History of Peloponnesian War by Thucydides Sparta dominated an group of poleis called the Peloponnesian League Sparta feared Athens and this led to a prolonged war between the two Chapter 3: The Peloponnesian War The war lasted 27 years (longest war in ancient Greece) Lead to the decline of the autonomy of poleis Athens = superior naval power Sparta = superior ground military Athens avoided land battles with the Spartans y building “long walls” o This worked until a plague struck in 430 BC o Killed thousands for 4 years including Pericles o Cleon succeeded Pericles and was more aggressive with Sparta Defeated the Spartans Killed inn 422 BC Both commanders of Sparta and Athens were killed the same year and then the two empires sued for peace 416 BC peace is broken and they resume fighting Athenian commander Alcibiades o 415 BC Athens invades Sicily in pursuit of rich land o Athens was defeated o Sicily was allies with Sparta so Athens was ultimately at the mercy of Sparta HIST 101: Western Civilization from Antiquity to the Age of Expansion Sparta enforced an antidemocratic regime called The Thirty Tyrants o Between 404 and 403 BC oligarchs brutally killed all opposers and ruled with cruelty o Athens fought off the Tyrants – democracy was restored in Athens By 400 BC Athenian control in Greece was no more Culture in Classic Athens o History was a Greek discipline o Herodotus = “father of Western History” wrote History of the Persian Wars o Thucydides History of the Peloponnesian War = his approach to history is similar to our own o Theatre was used to educate, persuade, and convince not simply entertain Only male actors Greek tragedy = Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides are most famous playwrights Greek Comedy included grotesque masks, over- emphasized themes, and obscenities = Aristophanes is most famous comic playwright o Philosophy = philos- (meaning love) and –sophia (meaning wisdom) “the love of wisdom” Pre-Socratic = philosophers before Socrates The role of Gods was removed in understanding the universe Sophists = 5 c. teachers who charged $$ for services and said that attempting to understand or rationalize the universe was foolish Stressed the discipline of rhetoric (persuasive speech) Socrates Most of what we know comes from his pupil Plato Didn’t write any of his work down Taught students the fundamentals of his doctrine Socratic Method - question-and-answer method that allows students to answer their own questions Accused of corrupting the youth by not worshipping the civic gods People of Athens often felt upset because they felt ignorant HIST 101: Western Civilization from Antiquity to the Age of Expansion Condemned to death in 399 BC Plato Epistemology – how do we know what is real Forms = pure, unchanging ideas Distaste for democracy Created the Academy – a philosophical institution o Aristotle studied here Aristotle Pupil of Plato Spent time analyzing and categorizing Created foundation for zoology, biology, and taxonomy Wrote treatises on politics and Gov. Tried to find the best form of Gov. through rational thought He supported a constitutional Gov. o Religion Greeks were polytheistic Civic and private sacrifices (I the form of animal, liquid, libation, incense, or votive gift Festivals and rituals dedicated to each god