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PSY 101

by: Andrej Sodoma
Andrej Sodoma
GPA 3.77
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About this Document

These notes cover the lecture were chapter three was presented. It contains concepts about the brain structure and function as well as the nervous system, neurons, and endocrine system.
Introduction to Psychology
Dr. Elizabeth Nelson
Class Notes
Intro to Psychology




Popular in Introduction to Psychology

Popular in Psychology (PSYC)

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Andrej Sodoma on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 101 at Arizona State University taught by Dr. Elizabeth Nelson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Arizona State University.


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Date Created: 09/06/16
Lecture on Chapter 3 notes: Biological aspects of psychology, structures and functions of the brain and methods for studying the brain. I.) Four lobes of the cerebral cortex and general brain structure. (Using the fist method) A. Frontal Lobe (fingers) i. Primary Motor Cortex (Knuckles) ii. Broca’s area (above thumb) = speech, located in left hemisphere only. B. Parietal Lobe (back of the hand) i. Primary sensory cortex = processes senses ii. Association cortex C. Temporal Lobe (thumb) i. Wernicke’s area = processes language (left side) D. Occipital Lobe (wrist) i. Primary visual cortex E. Corpus Callosum = connects the two left and right hemispheres. i. It is cut when someone has severe life threatening epilepsy. ii. When it is cut the left and right hemispheres cannot communicate resulting in people who are able to write but are not able to speak. F. Left hemisphere (right fist): controls the right side of the body, performs logic based tasks. G. Right hemisphere (left fist): controls the left side of the body, performs facial recognition, music, visual imagery, and spatial abilities. H. Hypothalamus: it is a gland near the brain stem that controls the release of hormones specifically Oxytocin as well as regulation of the Circadian Rhythm. i. Oxytocin: bonding hormone ii. Circadian Rhythm: it’s a 24 hour biological clock that governs our sleep cycle. I. Brainstem: controls automatic behavior and basic life support tasks like heart beat, breathing, etc. It is located below the midbrain and adjacent to the cerebellum. i. Hypothalamus: stress response ii. Cerebellum: coordinates and regulates muscular activity. J. Limbic System i. Hippocampus: coding and retrieving memory, also regulates emotion. ii. Thalamus: relay sensory information iii. Basil ganglia: voluntary movement K. Subcortical structure: thalamus, basal ganglia, amygdala i. Amygdala: encodes feared experiences and emotional responses. Fight or flight mode as well. L. Posterior Cingulate Cortex and Anterior Cingulate Cortex: located between the corpus callosum and the parietal lobe. i. PCC: memory and visual processing ii. ACC: controls autonomic nervous system II.) The Nervous System A. Central nervous system: brain and spinal cord. B. Peripheral nervous system: neural network C. Neurotransmitters use steroid and peptide molecules to bind with specific receptors in dendrite and synapses of nerve cells. D. Newborn neuron vs. mature neuron i. Dendrites: receives messages from synapses ii. Cell body: connects the dendrites iii. Axon: sends the signal to the synapses iv. Synapses: the junction between two nerve cells v. Myelin sheath: covers the axon allowing the signal to travel faster. vi. Schwann cells: produces the myelin sheath. vii. The difference between newborn neuron and a mature neuron is that the mature neuron has a myelin sheath allowing signals to travel faster. It also has more dendrites. viii. Glial cells: provide nutrients to neurons. ix. Pruning: it is the process of strengthening neural networks by making them automatic and intentional. It is done through genes and environment. - Newborn brains grow from the brain stem out then back to front. - At age two synaptic growth stops. - Pruning occurs until the age of 25. E. Information transition: i. Chemical signaling: neurotransmitters ii. First there is a calcium influx to initiate the release of neurotransmitters. Second, the synaptic vesicles move towards the synapse. Third, once the synaptic vesicles are at the synapse they open. Fourth, the neurotransmitter moves to the receptors, which are part of the dendrite. Fifth, the synaptic vesicle is recycled. Sixth, the synaptic vesicle is then refilled with neurotransmitters. F. Action Potential: electrical signaling i. First, an action potential shoots down the axon, which is an influx of sodium ions causing depolarization. The synaptic vesicles then fill with neurotransmitters and move down to the synapse in order to send the neurotransmitters to the receptors on the other neuron’s dendrites. Second, the sodium gates close. Third, this results in the potassium gates opening, which releases potassium ions. Fourth, repolarization occurs with an active sodium potassium pump. Fifth, hyperpolarization occurs bringing it back to the sixth and final step of rest polarization. III.) Endocrine system A. Hormones mentioned in class i. Endorphins: pain control ii. Melatonin: controls sleep and wake cycles iii. Epinephrine: fight or flight response iv. Norepinephrine: mood, sleep, learning v. Thyroid hormones: regulate metabolism B. Parts to the endocrine system i. Pituitary gland: regulates growth, thyroid, ovaries, testes, pancreas, adrenal cortex, water and salt metabolism. ii. Thyroid: controls metabolic rate. iii. Adrenal gland: regulates carbohydrates and salt metabolism. iv. Pancreas: regulates sugar metabolism. v. Pineal gland: regulates circadian rhythm.


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