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by: Haley Jones
Haley Jones

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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Haley Jones on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to at University of South Carolina taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views.


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Date Created: 09/06/16
Psychology notes 8/24/2016 I. Psychology originated in philosophy a. Chinese and Muslim philosophers and scientists speculated about human behavior b. in 19 century Europe, psychology emerged as a scientific foundation II. Mind/body problem: a fundamental psychological issue asking whether min and body are separate and distinct or the mind is simply the physical brain’s subjective experience a. Early scholars: the mind is entirely separate from, and in control of the body b. 1500s: Leonardo da Vinci challenged this doctrine III. Edward Titchener: pioneered a school of thought that became known as structuralism IV. Structuralism: an approach to psychology based on the idea that conscious experience can be broken down into its basic underlying components a. Used introspection to study consciousness b. Problems with introspections: experience subjective and reporting the experience changes it V. Functionalism: an approach to psychology concerned with the adaptive purpose, or function, of mind and behavior VI. Stream of consciousness: a phrase coined by William James to describe each person’s continuous series of ever-changing thoughts a. It’s more about the sequence of your thinking VII. Darwin’s work is most related to what aspect of Psychology? a. Biological, genetics, and evolution! All of it b. Psychology is multifaceted c. Foundations of psych VIII. Founded by Max Wertheimer (Gestalt psychology emphasized patterns and context in learning)in 1912 a. Experience is different than individual parts IX. Gestalt theory: a theory bsed on the idea that the whole of personal experience is differednt from the sum of its constituent elements a. Perception of objects is subjective X. What are the components, what’s the function, what’s the big picture? XI. Freud made psychology famous a. He did a lot of observation XII. Father of psychoanalysis: a method developed by Freud that attempts to bring the contents of the unconscious into conscious awareness so that conflicts can be revealed a. Frued analyzed the apparent symbolic content in the patient’s dreams in search of hidden conflicts b. Used free association, in which the patient would talk about whatever he or she wanted to for as long as he or she wanted to c. Contemporary psychologists no longer accept much Freudian theory XIII. Contrast to freud; there was a backlash by BEHAVIORISTS XIV. Behaviorism studied environmental forces a. John B Watson challenged psychology’s focus on conscious and unconscious mental processes i. Behaviorism focuses on environmental forces affecting behavior ii. Main question was Nature/Nuture? Behaviorists believed in nuture iii. Method still used today XV. More Modern (50s): cognition a. Studies showed that the simple laws of behaviorism could not explain all learning b. 1957: George A. Miller launched cognitive revolution c. Study of mental funcitons: intelligence, thinking, language, memory, and decision making d. Couldn’t have been born if computers didn’t exist e. About making machines that help you think and rudimentary functions of thinking f. Ulric Neisser integrated a wide range of cognitive phenomena in his book Cognitive Psychology g. Cognitive neuroscience: watching changes in the brain affect changes in behavior XVI. Four main goals of science a. Description b. Prediction c. Control d. Explanation XVII. Theory: a model of interconnected ideas or concepts that explains what is observed, makes predictions about future events, and is based on empirical evidence XVIII. Hypothesis: a specific, testable prediction, narrower than the theory it is based on


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