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Political Science Chapter 7 Notes from Textbook

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by: Kayra Reyes

Political Science Chapter 7 Notes from Textbook POLS 1336

Marketplace > University of Houston > Political Science > POLS 1336 > Political Science Chapter 7 Notes from Textbook
Kayra Reyes
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These notes cover Chapter 7 from POLS 1336 textbook from the Learn Smart/ McGraw Hill program. Basic ideas like types of government, goals, functions, etc are detailed and summarized for easy skimm...
US and Texas Constitution and Politics
Sharon M Davis
Class Notes
monarchy, political science, Government, democracy, socialism, Hobbes, Locke, capitalism, Politics




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayra Reyes on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POLS 1336 at University of Houston taught by Sharon M Davis in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 136 views. For similar materials see US and Texas Constitution and Politics in Political Science at University of Houston.


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Date Created: 09/06/16
Chapter 7 of “University of Houston: American Democracy Now” by Brigid Harrison, Jean Harris, and Michelle Deardorff Politics- the process of deciding who benefits in society and who does not Technology increases public access to government and politics Pg 142. Polls taken in 2000 showed that around 64% of undergrad college students had a low efficacy in their votes Yet, there is an increase in youth’s voter turnout since the 70s Civic Engagement: individual and collective actions designed to identify and address issues of public concern Political engagement: (form of civic engagement) citizen actions that are intended to solve public problems through political means Pg 145. Government: an institution that creates and implements the policy and laws that guide the conduct of a nation and its citizens Citizens: member of a political community who through birth or naturalization enjoy the rights, privileges, and responsibilities attached to the membership to a nation Naturalization: means of becoming a citizen, other than birth, by immigrants Legitimacy: a quality conferred on government by citizens who believe its power use is right and proper Pg 146. KEY FUNCTIONS OF GOVERNMENT 1. Protect sovereign territory and citizens plus provide national defense 2. To pressure order and stability 3. To establish a legal system and maintain it 4. To provide services (bureaucracy: roads, food inspection, air travel, etc) 5. Raise and spend money and taxes 6. Socialize new generations: education, libraries, museum, and parks Public Goods: government services TYPES OF GOVERNMENTS Monarchy: member of royal family have absolute authority over a territory and its government Oligarchy: elite few hold power, can also be dictatorships where group supports a dictator Democracy: supreme power of government lives in the hands of citizens GOVERNMENT STRUCTURES Totalitarianism: control all aspects of citizens’ lives (ex: dictator) Pg 147. Authoritarianism: hold strong powers checked by other forces in society (ex: China & Cuba) Constitutionalism: form of government structured by law provides for limited government *protects rights of citizens Pg 148. Divine Right of Kings: royals believe that it was God’s will they rule *challenging a monarch’s rule was like challenging God Puritans tried to reform this idea and the church’s control Social Contract: agreement between people and leader, people give up some liberties to have others protected 17 century= Enlightenment individuality, reason, scientific endeavor Natural Law: (set foundation for the Enlightenment) assertion that laws that govern human behavior are derived from human nature and can be universal Pg 149. Hobbes: human desire for power and anarchy Locke: right to life, liberty, and property; people will work in union Popular Sovereignty: government is created by people and needs people approval to rule Social Contract Theory: individuals possess free will and consent to be governed Direct Democracy: structure of government in which citizens discuss and decide policy through majority rule Indirect Democracy (aka Representative): elect representatives who decide on policies for them Pg 150. Political Culture: the public’s shared/popular beliefs about the government and political process Liberty: “freedom from government interference in our lives, pursuit of happiness” Pg 151. “All men are created equal” didn’t include ALL men for frame workers *eventually spread to color, gender, voting rights, etc. Pg 152. Capitalism: economic system in which the government doesn’t take control over production or income of profits of business (private) *owners decide wages, product price Except government does regulate that there is minimum wage, inspection of goods, taxes on goods, etc. Property: “anything that can be owned” Consent of the Governed: government only holds power through the people’s consent, if not, they may revolt Majority Rule: “only policies with 50 percent plus one rule are enacted” Pg 153. Political Ideology: set system of ideas or beliefs about politics and the government TRADITIONAL IDEOLOGY Goal of Government Socialism: equality Liberalism: equality of opportunity, protection of fundamental liberties Moderate: nondiscrimination opportunity, protection of some economic freedoms, security, stability Conservatism: traditional values, order, stability, economic freedom Libertarianism: absolute economic and social freedom Role of Government Socialism: strong government control of economy Liberalism: government action to promote opportunity Moderate: government action to balance the wants of workers and business, government fosters stability Conservatism: government action to protect and bolster capitalist systems, few limitations on fundamental rights Libertarianism: no government regulations of economy, no limitations and fundamental rights Liberalism: ideas of liberty and political equality favors overall change to protect individuals and equality (free education, capitalism, consent of governed) Pg 154. Conservatism: importance of preserving tradition, government roles should be limited; families, religious groups, & private charities should= power in regulating economy Socialism: stresses economic equality Libertarianism: government should be “hands off”, laissez faire, & allow rights to property *Moreover ideologies are more complex than they seem, not exactly the definition


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