Ch. 1 Soils Notes
Ch. 1 Soils Notes PSS 3303
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Payton Gilmore on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSS 3303 at Mississippi State University taught by Dr. Jac J. Varco in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Soils in plant and soil sciences at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 09/06/16
Ch. 1 Introduction to Soils What is Soil? o Humanity depends on it o Natural medium for plant growth o Foundation of our existence Why Study it? o See above You’ll discover… what lives in soil, and how soil helps things to live/thrive. Interdisciplinary Science Soil depends on many other sciences o Biology, Microbiology, Plant Physiology, Soil Animals o Physics, Hydrology, Water, Temp o Geology, Mineralogy, Weathering, Sedimentation o Chem, Biochem Earth- Our Home Life Sustaining Properties: o Atmosphere o Water o Soil Supports a US pop of 324 mil. and world pop of > 7.34 bil. Definitions: Ecosystem services- doing things for the benefit of improving the habitat or ecosystem Soil- Top layer of the earth’s surface suitable for plant growth. Also, land, to make dirty (soiled), animal feed. Dirt- Earth or soil, also filthy with soil, dust excrement etc. Humanity depends on soil: To produce food, feed, fiber, wood and biofuel Soil supplies water, air, nutrients, temp, moderation, and support for plant life Construction of homes, buildings, roads and recreational areas. o Firm stable soil is critical in construction To dispose of waste o Soil serves as a filter for groundwater, a decomposer and storage As a component of our environment. o Gas and water exchange o Supports microbial and animal life “The quality of life is directly related to soil quality.” – Dr. Jac J. Varco Agriculture 2 0.66% of US pop are principle farmers Expanded economy in manufacturing and service Miss. Acreage Data o Total acres= 30 mil o MS Delta=5 mil acres o 1 crop soybean= 2 mil Land use o Urban 2.68% o Cropland 18% o Parks 11.1% o Pasture 27% o Forest 29.7% Demand on Land Resources Population increase- demand for food, feed, fiber, and timber increases Potential Biofuel production Yields per acre have increased but how high can they go? Acreage that could be brought into production includes marginal land, wetlands, forest and arid soils. Soils exploited in the past in terms of fertility and erosion Proper soil management is imperative to maintain productivity. Crop productivity and sales represent and infusion of money and economy Soil History: o Soil destruction or mismanagement-contributed to downfall of some civilizations 3 o For example, Mesopotamia-overcrowding-pollutions and irrigations Potential Problems in the US include: o Erosion o Salt buildup o Loss of prime farmland to urbanization 2.2 mil acres per year 1992-1997 o Pollution o Declining Fertility Early Soil Concepts o Romans and Greeks observed soil-plant relationships o Early soil science (1563-1850) developed linkage between manures, legumes and soil and plant nutrition. Soil Scientists Two individuals responsible for recognizing soil as an organized body; an entity which evolves and depends on various factors EW Hilgard o State geologist of MS, recognized relationships between climate, vegetation, and rock materials and soils which develop o Father of Soil Science o MS VV Dukochaev 4 o Russian scientist who described horizonation and soils or natural bodies o Responsible for developing a system of soil classification around 1883 Late 19 Century: the science of forest soils began Early texts published 1946 and 1958 1979-1 edition Forest Soils: Properties and Processes Two approaches exist for studying soils: o Edaphology Study of soil properties as they relate to plant growth o Pedology Study of soils as a natural body and how environmental factors affect the classification Soil is a natural entity of unconsolidated organic and inorganic constituents in dynamic equilibrium with its environment and serves as a medium for plant growth o Sand,Silt, and Clay Soil as an Organized Body A. Soil Horizon - A distinct zone or layer formed by soil forming processes and having distinct characteristics such as texture, color and structure B.Soil Profile - Horizons which make up a soil at a given site Sollum-upper-most weathered material Regolith- unconsolidated materials above bedrock 5 o Red Soil: iron oxide Soil Composition by Volume: o Organic matter 5% o Mineral 45% o Water 20-30% o Air 20-30% Soil Composition by Weight: o Mineral Water-77% o Organic Matter-3% o Water-varies 6
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