Week 2 Class 2
Week 2 Class 2 History 221
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
Popular in History of the United States to 1877
Popular in History
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Landry Notetaker on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 221 at University of Louisiana at Lafayette taught by Ian W. Beamish in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see History of the United States to 1877 in History at University of Louisiana at Lafayette.
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Date Created: 09/06/16
Lecture Guide – Week 2 Class 2 – Southern Colonies in the Seventeenth Century Questions: • Why were some colonies able to survive in the sixteenthcentury? • Location and crops • How did Virginia and the Carolina Colony differ? • Virginia • Grows slowly • Serious wars and conflicts with natives • Over time tobacco and slavery push to become economic success • Carolinas • sixty years later • little conflict with natives • the culture of slavery and plantation agriculture is transported from Barbados even though most are from England Failed Colonies Jamestown (1607) Structured around a joint stock company o Virginia company Private company Goal: set up colony in New World Colony named after: King James Goals for Colony: Find Roanoke Make money fast o Gold o Establish trade with Native Americans o Enrich the companies and their big investments Settlers o Sailed from England to Chesapeake in 1607 First permanent English colony in the New World Constantly kept sending supplies and new settlers 3 years later= 61/500 are alive o Becomes a deadly place to be Conflicts with local Native American groups Weren’t growing their own food Wanted to get rich but didn’t want to work for it Short on farmers and craftsmen Not good at finding a good place to settle Ideal place for a settlement o Flat and near water Place where Jamestown was o Swamp Malaria Small in comparison to local Native American groups • Powhatan • Jamestown settlement pushes to acquire territory from these Natives • Leads to warfare (First Anglo Powhatan War (16101614) • Wars flare up over and over again • Damages settlers and population in Jamestown • Pocahontas • Married John Wolfe • Settler of Jamestown • Indentured Servants • Settlement still had not found ways to make money • Virginia Company figures out a way to make money since the settlers didn’t want to work • Indentured Servants • Poor people from England or English colonies who came to Jamestown but could NOT pay for their own passage • Wealthy pay for poor • Poor work for wealthy as a servant for seven years • If servants survive to the end of the seven years, they are free and receive a certain amount of land and clothing to start their own farm • Poor would never have been able to own land in England • Tobacco and Slavery (John Rolfe) • Discovered after ten years of struggling • Tobacco is a luxury item in England • Grows well in Virginia • Jamestown grows wealthier • Can now afford slaves (1619) to grow tobacco instead of indentured servants • Opechancanough (16221632) • Natives vs colonists • Conflicts • Tobacco • Increase of Europeans and plantations • Opec tried to force colonists to abandon colony altogether • Launched a last attack to remove colonists • Governor Berkeley captured and killed Opec • “Tobacco Brides” and Family Structure • 5 to 1 male to female ratio • Slow population growth • Wealthy men pay women to come to Jamestown and marry them • Bacon’s Rebellion (1676) and elites’ fear of crossracial alliances • Bacon: name of their leader • Who is revolting? • Poor Virginians • Why are these people rebelling? • Unhappy about the structure of Jamestown and Virginia • Unhappy that the governor of Jamestown is NOT allowing the colonists to seize as much land as they want from the Natives • Wealthy peoples’ concerns • Want to protect their own land • Expanding their colonies will anger Natives • Armed rebellion • Forced governor to flee • Burns down Jamestown • Stopped by English soldiers • Outcome • Wealthy elites of Virginia harden lines between indentured servants and servitude • Drawing distinction will make servants feel like they are above slaves • Buy more slaves and less indentured servants American Slavery, American Freedom • Virginia’s version of freedom required slavery The Caribbean and the South • Close ties because of proximity, history, and slavery • In particular, close ties to the English Caribbean colonies Barbados • One could argue that Barbados was one of the most important influences on the southern colonies in their early history • Hub for English empire in the New World • Wealthiest part of British empire outside of England • “Jewel of Empire” • Gets goods (slaves) first • Most access to enslaved people • Wealthy Colony • Sugar and slavery • Distinct Identity • Hearth of slavery and plantation societies in the English Atlantic • Slavery was brutal The Barbados Problem • Demographic and land crisis • By 1660s all good sugar land was taken • Wealthy sons had nothing to do • Barbadian slave owners wanted desperately to find more sugar land and places to invest their wealth South Carolina • William Hilton • Leads voyage • Explores the coast of Spanish Florida and Virginia • Proprietary venture • English government doesn’t colonize directly • Wealthy people governor new colony • Closest to the crown • Wealthiest sugar planters from Barbados • John Locke • Wrote first constitution for South Carolina • Secretary to the rich • First Fleet • Load ships and sail from England • First sail to Barbados • Take on more passengers and supplies • Once in the Carolinas, they move around and settle in Charles Town • Charles Town • People in charge are affiliated in Barbados • Quickly set standards for what the Carolinas will look like • The Carolina Colony in the 1680s • Barbadians bring enslaved people to Carolinas • Unlike Virginia with small holdings, South Carolina was from the start a world of slavery and plantations • Imports the brutal slave laws of Barbados • Finds a crop that will be successful • Rice • Off the coast • Good location Struggles of a Colony Fewer issues with Native Americans in the very early period Poor in people Resupply was an issue Proximity of Barbados Needed a staple crop Internal Divisions Takeaways on Establishing Southern Colonies Haphazard process Wide variety of motives Limited imperial design Colonial Competition Instability due to environment and Native American interactions Failure was the rule, success the exception Carolina Colony and Virginia offered different models
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