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Chem 177-Week 2- Mon-Wed-Fri

by: Megan Spiegel

Chem 177-Week 2- Mon-Wed-Fri Chem 177

Marketplace > Iowa State University > Chemsitry > Chem 177 > Chem 177 Week 2 Mon Wed Fri
Megan Spiegel
GPA 3.85

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Hello guys, Here is General Chemistry 177 Lectures from week 2 Mon-Wed-Fri. It is A LOT of information so be sure to spend some time reviewing and looking over the notes carefully! The notes ...
General Chemistry I
Dr. Anderson
Class Notes
General Chemistry, Avogadros Number, Molar Mass, nomenclature, Balancing Equations
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Megan Spiegel on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 177 at Iowa State University taught by Dr. Anderson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 79 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry I in Chemsitry at Iowa State University.


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Date Created: 09/06/16
Continuation of Atomic Theory of Matter (Chapter Two)….   ◼Let’s start with some practice:       ◼Chemical Formulas   ❏ All balanced in terms of the valence electrons   ❏ Memorize all 7 diatomic molecules   ­ How to remember       ◼Types of Formulas   ❏ Molecular​­​ can always be reduced into a smaller whole number ratio   e.g . ​C2​H6​ → can be reduced to C ​ H​3  ❏ Empirical​­​ lowest whole number ratio of a molecular formula  e.g. ​ CH​2​→ cannot be reduced further       ❏ Structural­  shows the connectivity of each atom in a molecule            ❏ Perspective Drawing​­ shows 3­D views/orientation of each atom in a molecule       ◼Ions   ­ When an electron is lost or gained the molecule becomes an ion   ❏ Cations­ loses electrons (positive)  ❏ Anions­ gains electrons (negative)     ◼Know the Common Cations and Anions      ❏ Ionic Compounds: generally formed between metals and nonmetals   ­ Only empirical formulas written   ­ Opposite charges always attract   ❏ The Criss­Cross Method         ◼Patterns in Oxyanion Nomenclature   ❏ 2 oxyanions involving same element  ­ Fewer oxygens  ​ = “­ite” ending   ­ More oxygens = ​  “­ate” ending   ❏ Periods 2 and 3 of the Periodic Table   ­ Period 2 has a maximum of 3 oxygens   ­ Period 3 has a maximum of 4 oxygens   ❏ Commit the Following to Memory:   1. ClO​ = “2 ​orite”   ­​ 2. ClO​  = 4​erchlorate”  3. ClO​  = 3​hlorate”   ­​ 4. ClO​ = “Hypochlorite”     ◼Acid Nomenclature   ❏ Nomenclature of Common Acids     ❏ Nomenclature of Binary Molecular Compounds (2 elements)   ❏ The element close to the metals group is written first   ❏ Use prefixes to identify the number of oxygens   e.g. CO​  = ​  the two subscript → Carbon ​Dio ​ xide   2​     ◼Nomenclature of Organic Compounds   ❏ When Hydrogen is replaced with something else, the name of the molecule is derived  from the of the alkaline            Nomenclature Flowchart              Binary Ionic  Binary  Ternary  Binary  Ternary Acids Checklist   Checklist   Molecular  Ionic  Acids  Checklist   Checklist   Checklist   1. Name the metal  1. Name the  1. Name the  1. All start with  1. Skip the hydrogen   first element  Metal   “hydro­”  2. Use Roman Numeral if  2. Use prefix  2. Use Roman  2. Name the  2. Name the polyatomic  the metal has a variable  to show the  Numerals if  nonmetal   ion  oxidation number  number of  metal has a  atoms present  variable  in the first  Oxidation  element   Number  3. Name the nonmetal.  3. Name the  Example:  3. Change the  3. Change endings from:   second  Cu(NO​ 3​ 2  ending to “­ic”  “­ate” to “­ic”   element   Copper (II)  “­ite” to “­ous”   Nitrite   Hint­ No  Roman  Numerals  needed if the  metal is Group  1/IA or Group  2/IA  4. Change the ending of  4. Repeat step    4. Add the  4. Add the word “Acid”   the nonmetal to “­ide”   number 2   word acid   Example:​ LiF   5. Change the  Example:​ HF  Example:   Lithium Fluoride  ending of the  Hydrofluoric  CO​3​(Carbon​ate​)   Hint ­ No roman numerals  second  Acid   H​ CO​ (Carbon​ic​ Acid)   2​ 3 ​ needed if the metal is a  element to  Group 1/IA (1+) or Group  “­ide”  2/IIA (2+)     Example:    N​2​5   Di​nitrogen (2)  Pento​ xide (5)   Hint­ Do not  use the prefix  “mono” on the  first element     Stoichiometry (Chapter Three)   ◼Stoichiometry: the study of the mass relationships in chemistry     ◼Chemical Equations: concise representations of chemical reactions   ❏ Must always be balanced   e.g. 2H​ O2​ O​  →2​H​ O​  2​ 2 ❏ The states of the reactants and products are represented by letters in parentheses   e.g. CH​  4​) + 2O​  (2​ → CO​  (g) 2​2H​ O (g) 2​ ­ The letter “g” representing “gas”   ❏ Coefficients are used to balance the equation ­ must follow the Law of Conservation of  Mass   ­ Never use subscripts to balance­­adding subscripts changes the  compound/molecule into a different substance    ◼3 Types of Reactions   1. Combinations​: 2 or more substances react to form one new substance     2. Decomposition​:​ One substance breaks down into 2 or more substances     3. Combustion​:​ Rapid and produce a flame   ­ Most often involve O​  as a reactant   2​   ◼Formula Weight (FW): sum of atomic weight for the atoms in a chemical  formula   ❏ Quantitative Significance of a Formula      e.g. F​ W of CaCl​  ​2​        ◼Percent Composition         ❏ Let’s look at an example!       ◼Percent Abundance v. Relative Abundance   ❏ Percent Abundance will always look like this → 23%   ❏ Relative Abundance will always look like this → 0.23     ◼Avogadro's Number   ❏ What is it?­ 6.02 • 10​  = 1 mole   ❏ A mole is the amount of pure substance containing the same number of chemical units  as there are atoms in exactly 12 grams of carbon 12.   ­ Carbon was chosen arbitrarily  ❏ What is molar mass?­ (M) is a physical property defined as the mass of a given  substance divided by the amount of total substance  ­ The two common base units for molar mass are: kg/mol or g/mol     ➤Let’s do an Example:       ◼Using Moles   ❏ Moles provide a bridge from the molecular scale to the real­world scale    ◼Mole Relationships   ❏ One mole of atoms, ions or molecules contain about 6.02 • 10​  of particles  ​ (contain  Avogadro's Number worth)   ❏ One mole of molecules contains 6.02 • 10​  multiplied by the number of atoms or ions in  each element of the compound     ◼Determining Empirical Formulas   ❏ One can determine the empirical formula from the Percent Composition by following  these three steps:           ​ ​ ​


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