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Philosophy Ch. 1.1

by: Kirsten Notetaker

Philosophy Ch. 1.1 Phil 110

Kirsten Notetaker

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About this Document

-what is an argument -rules to an argument
J. Martin
Class Notes
philosophy, phil, philosophy110, Philosophy 110, critical, thinking, 110




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kirsten Notetaker on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Phil 110 at California State University - San Marcos taught by J. Martin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Philosophy in Critical Thinking at California State University - San Marcos.

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Date Created: 09/06/16
What is an Argument?  ­ Set of statements n a particular relationship  ­ Some of the statements (or “premises”)    Rules:  1. Has at most one conclusion. If you have more than one conclusion, it is part of a separate  argument and needs independent support  2. Must have at least one premise, though usually more  3. premise(s) and the conclusion are connected by a relationship of support or evidence  called an “inference”  ­ infer: basically just filling in the blanks, making an inference  ­ inference: relationship between premise and conclusion    Definition of a Statement  ­ Premise and a conclusion are both statements  ­ A statement is a sentence that is true or false  ­ Statements are related to arguments via the inference relationship  ­ Premise gives support or evidence for accepting the conclusion as true  ­ Implication from the premise to the conclusion is the inference    Truth Values  ­ truth and falsity are referred to     What are indicator words  ­ Variety of words that are typically used to indicate either the conclusion or the premises  of an argument  ­ “Thus” “hence” “therefore”  ­ In order to put an argument into standard form, it is essential to be able to identify the  premise, or premises, and the conclusion    Putting Arguments into Standard Form  Step 1. Look for “indicator” words  Step 2. If there are no indicator words, then test the first statement  Step 3. If the conclusion is not the first statement, then test the subsequent statements    Incomplete Arguments:  ­ Either the arguer has failed to supply a necessry premise or to explicitly state his or her  conclusion  ­ Enthymemes: incomplete arguments  ­ Very common in everyday communication 


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