Philosophy Ch. 1.1
Philosophy Ch. 1.1 Phil 110
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kirsten Notetaker on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Phil 110 at California State University - San Marcos taught by J. Martin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Philosophy in Critical Thinking at California State University - San Marcos.
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Date Created: 09/06/16
What is an Argument? Set of statements n a particular relationship Some of the statements (or “premises”) Rules: 1. Has at most one conclusion. If you have more than one conclusion, it is part of a separate argument and needs independent support 2. Must have at least one premise, though usually more 3. premise(s) and the conclusion are connected by a relationship of support or evidence called an “inference” infer: basically just filling in the blanks, making an inference inference: relationship between premise and conclusion Definition of a Statement Premise and a conclusion are both statements A statement is a sentence that is true or false Statements are related to arguments via the inference relationship Premise gives support or evidence for accepting the conclusion as true Implication from the premise to the conclusion is the inference Truth Values truth and falsity are referred to What are indicator words Variety of words that are typically used to indicate either the conclusion or the premises of an argument “Thus” “hence” “therefore” In order to put an argument into standard form, it is essential to be able to identify the premise, or premises, and the conclusion Putting Arguments into Standard Form Step 1. Look for “indicator” words Step 2. If there are no indicator words, then test the first statement Step 3. If the conclusion is not the first statement, then test the subsequent statements Incomplete Arguments: Either the arguer has failed to supply a necessry premise or to explicitly state his or her conclusion Enthymemes: incomplete arguments Very common in everyday communication
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