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Ecology of Food

by: Carina Sauter

Ecology of Food Ecology 1000

Carina Sauter
GPA 3.79

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About this Document

These notes finish up the last powerpoint before the first exam. In this lecture, the professor mainly talked about the ways that we can control our environmental impact in how we choose the foods...
Introduction to Environmental Issues
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carina Sauter on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Ecology 1000 at University of Georgia taught by Connelly in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Environmental Issues in Ecology at University of Georgia.

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Date Created: 09/06/16
Ecosystem Services – Ecology of Food (continued) • More problems with pesticides o Broad-spectrum pesticides typically kill beneficial insects as well as harmful ones o Maximize effects of pesticides and minimize environmental impacts § Use short=lived pesticides § Use pesticides that target only certain species § Study life cycles of target pests to determine best time and place to use chemicals • Boll Weevil Pesticides (Athens Banner Herald) o Can we do something other than spray harmful pesticides? § Pherome trap: • UGA/ Tifton Experimental Station • Pherome helped cotton farming with Boll Weevil Traps by o Reducing pesticide use by 75% o Increasing crop yield o Cutting costs by 90% • Pherome (scent) placed in trap that smelled like females to attract the males – could not escape • Why use chemicals when there are natural methods? o Biological pest control: using natural predators and parasites to manage pests o Biologically based methods can control pests without collateral damage to the ecosystem § i.e. parasitism by braconid wasps that killed (not all, but some) caterpillars which were particularly harmful to plants § wasps lay eggs on caterpillar to eat them from the inside out • Allee Effect o : reduction in reproduction or survival of a species when at low population densities o biological control of screw-worm fly and cattle beginning in 1950’s by USDA § flies were harming cattle • because females only mate one time, sterilizing many of the flies will reduce the population because the eggs won’t hatch correctly • population crashes = allee effect • Integrated Pest Management o The effective combination of three types of pest control to manage pest population while minimizing environmental damage o Do not need to totally eradicate pest populations to help yourself… o Combining methods (ecological, biological, chemical, etc.) without doing every single one to its full capacity o We don’t need to kill a species, just control the population to acceptable numbers • The ecology of eating o Food accounts for ~25% of our ecological footprint (less in less developed countries) o Where do we eat on the food chain? – meats, fruits and vegetables, both? o Think about: § Changing your environmental impact - what we eat is very important § Consider where food is coming from – do you need the oranges imported from California that is in a drought? § Consider purchasing locally grown foods that are in season o Sustainable agricultural practices: § Soil conservation: strip cropping and no-tillage • Farm land with huge amounts of the same food will attract pests • Disease § Reduce use of pesticides and favor crop rotations • Draws a variety of nutrients from soil • Doesn’t deplete soil • Trick pests • Manure and legumes > fertilizer § Water conservation • Grow things where it makes sense (not in the middle of a desert where you need a lot of imported water)


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