anatomy and Physiology I, week 3 reading notes
anatomy and Physiology I, week 3 reading notes 2200
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Britney Beckett on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2200 at University of Georgia taught by Ann Massey in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views.
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Date Created: 09/06/16
Chapter 3 Reading Notes: The cell membrane: Cell membrane is a pliable structure surrounding the cell that is made of a phospholipid bilayer. o Phospholipid: polar (hydrophilic) head, non polar (hydrophobic) tail o Bilayer: composed of 2 phospholipids. Tails of each phospholipid are pointing inward. o Amphipathic: molecule composed of hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions The presents of cholesterol in the cell membrane contributes to its fluidity. o Fluidity is an important feature of the cell membrane. o Fluidity means that the phospholipids and proteins are not locked in place. Various proteins with different functions are also found in the membrane. Intracellular fluid: fluid inside of the cell Extracellular fluid: fluid outside of the cell membrane Interstitial fluid: fluid not inside of blood vessels Membrane Proteins: Integral Proteins: proteins embedded in the membrane. o Channel proteins: transports particular molecules in and out of the cell. o Cell recognition proteins: identification for the cell so it can be recognized by other cells Receptors: type of recognition protein that binds with a specific molecule outside of the cell to induce chemical reaction within the cell. Ligand: molecule that binds to receptor. o Glycoprotein: protein with carbohydrate attached. Aid in cell recognition. Aid in cells binding together. Peripheral protein: o Have specific function based on the cell. Transport across cell membrane: Membrane is selectively permeable: only allows certain materials to pass through. Only very small, nonpolar molecules can move through cell membrane. *Water can diffuse through membrane because of its size Passive Transport: molecule movement across the membrane without uses of energy o Molecules move down the concentration gradient from high concentration to low concentration. o Diffusion: movement of particles from an area of high concentration to low concentration CO2, H2O, O2 can diffuse through membrane Charged particles CAN NOT diffuse through membrane o Facilitated diffuse: passive transport for particles that can diffuse through membrane because of size, charge, or polarity. Particles are transported using channel proteins and carrier proteins. o Osmosis: diffusion of water through semipermeable membrane Water moves in or out of the cell based on the concentration of solute. Water moves from low solute concentration to high solute concentration. Hypertonic: solution that has high solute concentration relative to cell’s solute concentration. Water will leave the cell. Hypotonic: solution that has low solute concentration relative to cell’s solute concentration. Water will enter the cell. Isotonic: solution that has the same solute concentration as the cell. No net movement of water. o Filtration: passive transport of solution based on hydrostatic pressure. Solution is pushed from area of high pressure to area of low pressure. i.e. kidneys removal of waste from bloodstream Active Transport: molecule movement across the membrane using energy (ATP) With carrier o Moving particles against concentration gradient (from low to high concentration) o Sodium-potassium pump: moves Na+ out of the cell, moves K+ into the cell Maintain electrical gradient: difference in electrical charge on either side of cell membrane. Active transport done by the pump creates a concentration gradient. When cell need Na+ it opens passive transport channel and Na+ will diffuse into cell. Secondary active transport: Active transport “powers” passive transport. o Symporters: secondary active transporters that move two substances in the same direction. o Antiporters: secondary transporters that move substances in opposite directions. Without carrier o Endocytosis: cell ingests substance by enveloping it in cell membrane o Phagocytosis: endocytosis of large particles o Pinocytosis: cell ingests fluid containing substance o Receptor-mediated endocytosis: endocytosis by part of cell membrane with many receptors for a specific substance. o Exocytosis: removing substances from the cell through use of vesicular transport. (Reverse of endocytosis) *Phagocytosis and pinocytosis take in large portions of extracellular material. Not very selective. The cytoplasm and cellular organelles: Cytosol: jelly-like substance within cell. Creates fluidity with in cell Organelle: Membrane-enclosed bodies within the cell that each have a unique functions. Cytoplasm: organelles and cytosol Nucleus: o Houses DNA of the cell. o Control center of cell. o Largest organelle Endomembrane system: system that produces, packages, and exports certain cellular products o Endoplasmic reticulum + Golgi apparatus + vesicles ER- organelle made of channels surrounding the nucleus that function in transporting, synthesizing, and storing materials. Exists in two forms: smooth ER (synthesize lipids) and rough ER (synthesis proteins) Golgi apparatus-organelle responsible for modifying, sorting, and shipping off products that come from the ER. Have two sides: one side for receiving products the other for releasing packages. Vesicles- spherical, hollow, membranous sacs that transport materials Lysosome: organelle that contains enzymes to break down unneeded cell material (i.e. damaged organelles) o Autophagy- cell digesting its own structures o Autolysis: If cell becomes damage or unhealthy, then lysosomes can open up and release digestive enzymes, killing the cell Mitochondria: energy transformer of the cell o Has inner, highly folded membrane known as cristae o Site of cellular respiration (glucose to ATP) Peroxisomes: organelle containing enzymes for lipid metabolism and chemical detoxification. o Neutralizes poisons such as alcohol *Reactive oxygen species (ROS)- highly reactive products of normal cellular processes. Molecules are reactive because they contain unpaired electrons **Oxidative stress- damage caused by ROS Cytoskeleton: helps cell maintain structure o Group of fibrous proteins o Important for cell motility, cell reproduction, and transportation of substances within the cell. o Microtubule (thick)- maintain cell shape and structure, resist cell compression, positions organelles within the cell Cilia: move rhythmically moving waste away from cells Flagellum: causes cell movement. (Seen on sperm cells in humans) o Microfilament (thin)- Make up most of muscle tissue. Cause muscle contractions Create cleavage furrow for cell division o Intermediate filament (medium)- Resist tension Anchor organelles together within cells Link cells together by forming junctions The Nucleus and DNA replication Nuclear envelope: consists of two adjacent lipid bilayers Nuclear pore: passage between nucleus and cytoplasm Nucleolus- region that produces RNA Chromosome: composed of DNA and protein DNA structure: two complementary strands connected by nitrogenous bases twisted into a double helix shape. Looks like a twisted ladder. DNA replication: copying of DNA before cell division o Stage 1: Initiation- complementary strands are separates o Stage 2: Elongation- each strand becomes template on which new complementary strand is built o Stage 3: Termination- once two identical DNA molecules are formed replication stops Each DNA molecule contains one old strand and one new strand Protein synthesis: Proteome: full set of proteins in cell Gene expression: transformation from gene code to protein Triplet: sequence of 3 DNA bases that code for a specific amino acid Transcription: o DNA to RNA o Stage 1-initiation: promoter (sequence of nucleotides that tell RNA polymerase to start) triggers start of transcription RNA polymerase: protein that adds nucleotides to RNA strand o Stage 2-elongation: RNA polymerase adds nucleotides to RNA strand o Stage 3-termination: RNA polymerase reaches “stop” codon and stops elongating the RNA strand. o Spiceosome: protein that cuts out noncoding regions of RNA Slicing: process of cutting out non coded RNA Introns: name for the segment of noncoded RNA Translation: o RNA to Proteins o rRNA: RNA that combines with protein to make ribosomes that facilitate the translation of RNA to protein o mRNA: strand of RNA that will be translated into protein o tRNA: RNA that has the appropriate corresponding amino acid to the ribosome. Anticodon: 3 base sequence on tRNA o Stage1-intiation: binding of ribosomes to mRNA o Stage 2-elongation: anticodons of tRNA and codons of mRNA combine o Stage 3-termination: ribosome reaches the “stop” codon on mRNA o Polyribosome: string of ribosomes translating a single mRNA strand. (Makes the process of translation quicker) Cell growth and division: Somatic cells: general body cells. Any non sex cell Homologous chromosomes: two copies of a single chromosomes Cell cycle: series of events from cell creation until cell division o Interphase- phase when cell is not dividing G0- resting phase G1- growth phase S- cell replicates its DNA G2- cell growth and preparations for cell division Sister chromatid- each copy of a chromosome Centromere: structure that connects sister chromatid together o Mitotic phase-cell division Prophase-chromatin condenses into chromosomes. Nuclear envelope disintegrates Metaphase-microtubules attach to sister chromatid along linear plane in middle of cell. Anaphase- sister chromatid are separated Telophase- cells divide into two new identical daughter cells o Cell cycle control: Checkpoint: point in cell cycle at which the cycle can be signaled to move forward or be stopped Controls are important for making sure cells divided properly and in good condition
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