PSY100: week 2 class notes 9/6/16
PSY100: week 2 class notes 9/6/16 PSY 100
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lorren Roberts on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 100 at Central Michigan University taught by Mark A Deskovitz in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Central Michigan University.
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Date Created: 09/06/16
Chapter 1: Scientific Method Basic goals of Psychology 1. Describe objectively an experience and its effects 2 . Explain the nature of the experience 3 . Predict events that may cause this experience 4 . Control or influence reactions to this experience by studying different strategies to find what works To achieve these goals, psychologists use the scientific method The steps of the Scientific Method 1 . Formulate a testable hypothesis o Hypothesis: a statement describing the relationship between variables (2 or more) o Variables: factors that can vary or change by being observed, measured, and verified 2 . Design a study and collect data o Decide which research method to use to collect data: descriptive or experimental 3 . Analyze data and draw conclusions o Uses statistics (a branch of mathematics) to analyze, summarize, and conclude data 4 . Report the findings o Reports must include: the reason for testing the hypothesis, who participated in the study, how participants were selected, how variables were chosen, what methods were used, how the data was analyzed, and what the results suggest Descriptive Research Methods Naturalistic observations: the science of people watching o Observing and recording behaviors of people in their natural environments Example: a teacher watching a child with ADHD in the classroom and seeing how many times he/she gets distracted as compared to the other students o Allows for researchers to study behaviors that can’t be manipulated in an experiment Case studies: studies with large amounts of indepth research on rare, unusual, or extreme conditions of an individual, a family, or a social group o Valuable in clinical psychology when treating patients with specific psychological disorders Surveys: a questionnaire including personal questions about experiences, beliefs, behaviors, or attitudes o Usually used in conjunction with naturalistic observations and case studies but not always useful because people may not tell the truth o Random selection is used to pick participants for surveys Correlational studies: examines the relationship between two variables (how strongly they are related) o Correlation coefficient: indicator of strength ranging from 1.00 to +1.00 Examples: an increase in study time could mean an increase in GPA (positive correlation +,+), but an increase in drinking could mean a decrease in GPA (negative correlation +,) Correlation does not mean causation (could be related but not the direct cause) Experimental Method A research method that is used to demonstrate a causeandeffect relationship between 2 variables (where one variable is changed and how the other is effected) Random assignment: all participants have an equal chance of being assigned to any of the experimental groups Hypothesis and participants: form a hypothesis and participants are picked carefully accordingly and put into either an experimental or a control group Experimental and control groups o The experimental group receives the independent variable (medication, therapy, or procedure) o The control group experiences all the experimental conditions but is not given the independent variable which can sometimes cause a placebo effect Placebo effect example: being sick and suddenly feeling better because someone gave you medication, told you it would make you feel better and you believed it (even though it was fake) Independent variable: the factor that is thought to cause change in an experiment and is purposely manipulated/changed to do so Dependent variable: the factor that is observed and measured for change in an experiment Experimental procedure: what the experiment consists of/what is done to prove the hypothesis Results, discussion, and reporting findings: state key findings and summarize experiment Variation in experimental design: using natural experiments to attempt to lessen limitations o Natural experiments: studies that show the effects of a naturally occurring event on participants (book example: relationship between environmental factors and weight gain) Limitations 1. Results may not generalize can only be applied to the participants in the study, not to general populations or real world situations 2. What researchers want to study may be impossible or unethical to control experimentally
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