Week 1 Notes - Bio II
Week 1 Notes - Bio II Bio 1144
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by ake104 on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 1144 at Mississippi State University taught by Thomas Holder in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Lecture in Biochemistry at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 09/06/16
August 18, 2016 Chapter 27 – Prokaryotic Diversity Prokaryotic fossils dated at 3.5 billion years Modern prokaryotes are most abundant, lacking sexual reproduction Domain Bacteria – Proteobacteria – ‘true bacteria’ Cyanobacteria – ‘blue green bacteria’ Domain Archaea – have an ‘almost’ nucleus Specialized membranes Surrounded by Wall Eukaryotic Diversity Kingdom Protista (Ch. 28) Earliest eukaryotes in fossil record Most are microscopic and found in moist environments DNA – many separate groups Kingdom Protista Algae ‘plantlike’ organisms (mostly) 10 groups Autotrophic (‘selffeeding’) – most are photosynthetic; few ingest food Unicellular through large multicellular Cell Wall w/ cellulose Protozoans ‘animallike’ organisms Mostly heterotrophic (‘ingest feeding’) The eat preformed molecules Some single celled, some multicellular Fungallike Protists Mostly saprotrophic (‘absorb feeding’) Mostly multicellular Kingdom Fungi (Ch. 31) *Kingdom Fungi MIGHT be largest living organism* ( fungal bodies grow underground however we have no idea how large they grow underground…hence the “might”) ‘conspicuous’ portion of the organism is the mushroom/yeast/mold, etc. Saprotrophic (some heterotrophic) Nature’s “recyclers” Body = mycelium (compacted mass of tubular filaments called hyphae) “fruiting body” – site of spore production Cell Wall – composed of chitin Fungi Animalia plantae Protista Bacteria Plant Diversity Kingdom Plantae (Ch. 29 and 30) >330,000 species Eukaryotic and multicellular Autotrophic (mostly) ‘selffeeding’ – capture sunlight energy by photosynthesis *food storage compound – starch *cell wall – cellulose *photosynthetic pigments – chlorophylls a & b, betacarotene Kingdom Plantae referred to as ‘land plants’ Fossils dated to about 400 mybp (million years before present) Ancestor stock probably group of some form of green algae Life of Land – must be able to get water. Requires special innovation(s) – ROOTS (absorb water and minerals) 10 Phyla (Divisions) in Kingdom Typically ‘combine’ these into 4 broad categories for convenience and due to similar characteristics: o Bryophytes Phylum Hepatophyta (liverworts) – 6500 spp. Phylum Anthocerophyta (hornworts) – 100 Phylum Bryophyta (mosses) – 12,000 Due to more similarities between these 3 groups, often discussed together as the ‘mosses and their allies’ (Bryophytes) Reproduce by spores (no seeds) Nonvascular plants – lack conducting tissues (xylem & phloem) [small plants] Require external H2O for reproduction o Pteridophytes Phylum Lycopodiophyta (lycophytes) – 1000 Phylum Pteridophyta (ferns & allies) – 12,000 Due to more similarities between these 2 groups, often discussed together as the ‘ferns and relatives’ (Pteridophytes) Reproduce by spores (no seeds) Vascular plants – contain conducting tissues xylem (conducts water/minerals) and phloem (conducts food/solutes) ‘true’ roots/stems/leaves due to vascularized Vascular tissues allow for large size require external H2O for reproduction o Gymnosperms Phylum Cycadophyta (cycads) – 300 spp. Phylum Ginkgophyta (ginko) – 1 Phylum Gnetopyta (gnetophytes) – 300 Phylum Coniferophyta (conifers) – 500 Due to similarity of seeds, these 4 groups, often discussed together as the Gymnosperms (naked seeded plants) Biggest group are the conifers (conebearing trees) Includes the following living organisms: Oldest – Bristlecone Pine Biggest – Giant Sequoia Tallest – Coastal Redwood Vascular plants – contain conducting tissues xylem and phloem, but is more advanced than Pteridophytes* Seeds – advanced character; NOT enclosed inside a structure. Seed has ‘survival value’ Contains the following: embryo, stored food, integument Does NOT require external H2O for reproduction – pollen tube delivers sperm to egg location o Angiosperms Phylum Anthophyta >300,000 species Produce flowers, fruits, most advance vascular tissues and seeds Seeds – advanced character; Seed is enclosed in a vessel (fruit). Seed has ‘survival value’ Contains the following: embryo, stored food, 2 integuments Does NOT require external H2O for repro. – pollen tube delivers sperm to egg location Flowers – attract pollinators Fruits – enclose/protect seeds AND assist with seed dispersal o Animal Diversity Kingdom Animalia (Ch. 32 &33) Over 1.5 million species (?> 3 million) 35 Phyla More similarity w/in animal genomes than other Kingdoms Bio II 8/16/2016 Chapter 26 Key concepts: Taxonomy Phylogenetic trees Cladistics Molecular clocks Horizontal gene transfer Taxonomy - Science of describing, naming, and classifying living and extinct organisms Systematics Study of biological diversity and the evolutionary relations among organisms, both extinct and modern - Taxonomic groups are based on hypothesis regarding evolutionary relationships derived from systematics Taxonomy continues… - Hierarchical system involving successive levels - Each group at any level is called a taxon - Highest level is domain - All of life belongs to one of 3 domains - Bacteria, Archae, and Eukarya *Eukarya is often divided into kingdoms as the next level, 4-Kingdom concept 4-Kingdom concept - Domains Bacteria and Archaea – prokaryotic cells - Domain Eukarya (eukaryotic cells) o Kingdom Protista o Kingdom Fungi o Kingdom Plantae o Kingdom Animalia Types of Cells - Prokaryotic – before nucleus - Lack nucleus - Lack membrane-bounded organelles - Eukaryotic – true nucleus - Well-defined nucleus - Membrane bound organelles – internal membrane system (compartments) Binomial nomenclature - Genus name and specific epithet - Ex. Homo sapiens (‘wise human’) - Specific epithet never capt. - Genus name always capt. - Both names either italicized or underlined - Proposed by Carolus Linnaeus in 1753 - 2-worded scientific name - ‘artificial’ Phylogenetic Trees - Phylogeny – evolutionary history of a species or group of species - To propose a phylogeny, biologists use the tools of systematics - Trees are usually based on morphological or genetic data - Diagram that describes phylogeny - A hypothesis of evolutionary relationships among various species - Based on avail. Info. - Monophyletic group or clade o Group of species, taxon, consisting of the most recent common ancestor and all of its ancestors - Smaller and more recent clades are nested within larger clades that have older common ancestors - Paraphyletic group o Contains a common ancestor and some, but not all, of its descendants - Polyphyletic group o Contains groups of species with different common ancestors - Over time, taxonomic groups will be reorganized so only monophyletic groups are recognized - Reptiles were a paraphyletic group because birds were excluded. Morphological analysis - First systematic studies focused on morphological features if extinct and modern species - Most of early classification methods utilized morphological features as well Molecular systematics - Analysis of genetic data, such as DNA and amino acid sequences, to identify and study genetic similarities and propose phylogenetic trees - DNA and amino acid seq. from closely related species are more similar to ea. other than to species from more distantly related species Horizontal Gene Transfer - Any process in which an organism incorporates genetic material from another organism without being the offspring of that organism - Vertical evolution – changes in groups due to descent from a common ancestor
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