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Psychology Week 2 Chapter 2 Fill in Notes

by: Nina

Psychology Week 2 Chapter 2 Fill in Notes Psychology 2510

Marketplace > University of Toledo > Psychology > Psychology 2510 > Psychology Week 2 Chapter 2 Fill in Notes
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These are the fill in notes from the powerpoint of chapter 2
Lifespan Developmental Psychology
Rebecca L. Gurney
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nina on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psychology 2510 at University of Toledo taught by Rebecca L. Gurney in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Lifespan Developmental Psychology in Psychology at University of Toledo.

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Date Created: 09/06/16
Chapter 2: From Conception to Birth · The Beginning of Life · Chromosomes and Genes · DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) · The molecule that contains the chemical instructions for cells to manufacture various proteins · Chromosome · One of the 46 molecules of DNA (23 pairs) that each cell of the human body contains and that, together, contain all the genes. · Gamete · Reproductive cell · Each man or woman can produce 223 different gametes, or more than 8 million version of their 4 chromosomes (sperm and ovum) · Zygote · The single cell that is formed from the fusing of the two gametes, a sperm (men) and an ovum (women) · Gene · A section of a chromosome and the basic unit for the transmission of heredity, consisting of a string of chemicals that are in structions for the cell to manufaceture certain proteins. · Genotype · An organism's entire genetic interitance, or genetic potential. · The genes you have · Phenotype · The observable characteristics of a person, including appearance, personality, intelligence and all other traits. · What you look like · Allele · Variation of a gene · Genome · The full set of genes that are the instructions to make an individual member of a cetain speciaes. · Complete instruction for a living organism · XX = female; XY = male · Males are more likely to be spontaneously aborted · Male sperm are faster butdemale sperm live longer · Monozygotic twins · Twin’s who originate from one zygote that splits early in development · Dizygotic twins · Twins who are formed when two separate ova are fertilized by two separate sperm at roughtly the same time. · Genetic Interaction · Dominant-recessive pattern · "the dominant gene will always be the phenotype of the person. the recessive gene, if present will be in the persons genotype, but will not be expressed (the person is said to be a carrier). if the dominant gene is not present, and only the recessive gene is, then it will be the persons phenotype" · Carrier · Ex. You can be a carrier of blue eyes even though you don't have blue eyes. · Zygote to Newborn · Germinal period · The first two weeks after oconception characterized by rapid cell division adn the beginnging of the cell diffrentiation. · Placenta · the organ that surrounds the developing embryo and fetus, sustaining life via the umbilical cord · Attached to the wall of the uterus · Implantation · The process, beginning about 10 days after conception where the zygote burrows into the placenta where it can be nourished at protected · Abour 60% of in vivo conceptions and 70% in vitro conceptions fail to implant · Stem cells · First 2 divisions of the zygote · Can become anything · Embryonic period · 3rd – 8th week after conception · basic forms of all body structures, including internal organs develop · eyes, eats, nose, mouth, arms, legs, finers, and toes form · zygote is now an embryo · Fetal period · 9th week after conception to birth · fetus grows in size and matures in functioning · genitals develop early in this period · cephalocaudal growth – head develops first · proximodistal growth – extemities develop last · brain grows back to front · brainstem --> midbrain --> cortex · age of viability · about 22 weeks after conception where a fetus may survive outside the mother's uterus if specialized medical care is available · brain is regulating basic functions like breathing · Birth · Process · at about 38 weeks the fetal brain signals the release of hormones to trigger contractions - labor · head first is normal position · legs or butt first is breech position · the baby changes from a "bluish" to a "pinkish" color - because of oxygen · Apgar scale · a quick assessment of a newborn's body functioning. The baby's heart rate, respiratory effor, muscle tone, color, and reflexes are given a score of 0, 1, or 2 twice -- at one minute and at five minutes after birth - the ideal score of 10. · Cesarean section · c-section · a surgical birth, in which incisions sthrough the mother's abdomen and uterus allow the fetus to be remove quickly, instead of being delivered through the vagina. · 1/3 of U.S. births · slower recovery for mom; prevents immediate breast feeding · Practices · home birth – complications · hospital – too much intervention · doula · a woman who helps with the birth process. Doulas are trained to offer support to new mothers, including massage and suggestions for breast feeding positions. · Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS) · A test often administered to newborns that measures responsiveness and records 46 behaviors, including 20 reflexes. · Reflexes · Involuntary action or movement in response to a stimulus. · Father’s role · Single, Pregnant women are more likely to use drugs and alcohol while pregnant. · to be involved because it helps everyone · Postpartum depression · The sadness and inadequacy felt by some new mothers in the days and weeks after giving birth. · Parent-infant bond The strong, lovoing connection that forms as parents hold, examine, and feed their newborn · Close Contact · kangaroo care · a technique where the mother of a low-birthweight infant holds the baby between her breasts. · babies sleep more deeply and are more responsive · massage baby regularly · babies are less irritable and relaxed · Genetic Problems · Down Syndrome · 3 copies of chromosome 21 aka trisomy 21 · Adults with down syndrome grow faster than normal adults · Facial characteristics: thick tongue, round face, slanted eyes · Hearing loss, heart abnormalities, muscle weakness, short stature, slow to develop language. · Teratogens · Teratogens · Agents and conditions, including viruses, drugs, and chemicals, that can impair prenatal development adn result in birth defects or death. · Behavioral Teratogens · Agents and conditions that can harm the prenatal brain, impairing the future child's intellectual and emotional functioning. · Timing Exposure · critical period and sensitive period · teratogens are most harmful to whatever is developing at the time · Amount of Exposure · threshold effect · a situation in which a certain teratogen is relatively harmless in small doses but becomes harmful once exporsure reaches a certain level (the threshold) · Problems · Cerebral palsy · Motor control · Anoxia · Lack of oxygen · Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) · Birth defects due to drinking · Low Birthweight · Low Birthweight (LBW) · A body weight at birth of less than 5.5 lbs · leading cause of infant mortality in the U.S. · unless the baby is 10 lbs., the more weight the better · Very Low Birthweight (VLBW) · a body weight of less than 3 pounds, 5 onces · Extremely low birthweight (ELBW) · a body weight of less than 2 pounts, 3 ounces · Reasons · preterm birth · small for gestational age (SGA) · 5lb. new-born is consider SGA if born on time but not SGA if born 2 months early · Causes · malnutrition · drugs · assisted reproductions · Heritability · A statistic that indicates what percentage of the variation in a particular trait within a particular population, in a particular context and era, can be traced to genes.


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