Principles of Developmental Psychology
Principles of Developmental Psychology 830
Popular in Developmental Psychology
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jacqueline Tkachuk on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 830 at Rutgers University taught by Linnea Dickson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Rutgers University.
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Date Created: 09/06/16
Principles of Developmental Psychology Lecture 1- January 25, 2016 Research Methods Theories -organized set of statements that do several important things 1. describe behavior of interests (ex: how do infants make sense of the world) 2. explain that behavior (why that behavior is the way it is) 3. make predictions about behaviors (under given circumstances or age) 4. guiding research questions (pose questions for us, make predictions about answer to those questions) Ex: Erikson: during adolescence, solidifying understanding of ourselves -Prediction: argues of a good sense of commitment to self is really important to the basis of an intimate relationship -individuals who have not fully resolved that stage move on, and move into development of relationships (not going to be able to create a fully intimate relationship out of a fear of losing yourself) 5. give meaning Criteria of Theories 1. Empirically sound (based on research) -must not be contradictory to what we already know 2. Testable (make clear predictions about what the results would look like if the theory was right or wrong) 3. Falsifiable, potential to show that the theory is wrong Ex: Freud is not falsifiable because it’s not testable, nobody can see that he is right or wrong Developmental Theories 1. Describe and explain change over time in those behaviors -good theories describe change in a particular area and how they interact with each other 2. Answer 3 basic questions about development (what to focus on, not what’s right or wrong) a. What does it look like? b. What causes it? c. When is it possible? -for each question there are two possible answers= compare and contrast them What Does It LOOK Like? 1. Continuous- quantitative, gradual, smooth, cumulative -ex: measuring change in reaction times, how much info can you take in overtime aka working memory, information processing theory of cognition 2. Discontinuous- stages, periods that describe change as abrupt, qualitative especially -can’t put a number to it -ex: development of locomotion (rolling, crawling, cruising, independent walking, hopping, running) = different stages of development of locomotion What CAUSES it? 1. Nature (biological makeup, genetics, what is internal) 2. Nurture (environment) -combination of both, impossible to develop without environment or genes -theories tend to side towards one over the other WHEN Can It Occur? 1. Early- only during the early years is developmental change possible (up to puberty) (once an adult, personality is set and will not change=> Freud) (Piaget and cognitive change, when you reached adulthood that is it) -stability theories (no change in adulthood) 2. Lifespan-real true developmental change happens throughout lifespan (through middle to late adulthood) -change theories -ex: Erikson (student of Freud), Freud stopped at puberty, however Erikson brought 3 more stages up to adulthood Developmental Research 3 Basic Designs 1. Cross-sectional -Compare how quickly 3-year old’s ability is from a 7-year-old, putting peg in peg board -only see 3 year olds once, whole different group of kids than 5 year olds -different individuals at different ages -common and popular developmental design Pros: -very fast, less money, years’ worth of developmental change, results more quickly Cons: -REALLY NOT a developmental design -it is not an explanation of change over time = change over time was not a factor -you can’t see developmental trends of an individual -potential for cohort effects (cohort: group of individuals of same age with same historical experiences) -problem with cohort effects is historical/environmental factors that might affect a certain age group of individuals -creates a confounding variable (environmental factor) 2. Longitudinal -Take a group of 3 year olds and follow them along as they grow up over time -same kids measured repeatedly at different ages Pros -you see change over developmental time Cons: -takes longer, takes 2 years to get data -more money, less quick to publish Principles of Developmental Psychology 1/28/16-Lecture 2 What CAUSES it? Nature AND Nurture -our genes are always being expressed in an environment -false dichotomy, the line between them is not distinct -examples: -some are born with syndrome caused by high levels of hormones exposed prenatally (nature) -in utero is an environment, that prenatal exposure nature or nurture? It’s either. -H.O.M.E. environment is created by their parents, influenced by genetics, cannot measure environment without influence of genetics 3 Basic Designs 1. Cross-sectional -pros: quick, cost efficient -cons: does not measure developmental change -measure each individual once, then measure other group of individuals at another age -because there is no developmental change, can’t really make conclusion -those different groups of individuals are also cohorts (group of individuals of same age who have experienced same historical experience) =cohort effects 2. Longitudinal -follows each individual over time -cons: takes time to collect data -Pros: it measures change over developmental time, can see trends -can’t see trends in cross-sectional study -problems: - repeated testing effects (from testing them on the same thing) -selective attrition: loss of subject participation over time -the group of individuals that may get all the way through might be in some ways meaningfully different from the group of kids who dropped out, end up having data from a select group of individuals -likely to lose families who can’t stay in one place, unreliable transportation, get sick a lot, whose parents get sick a lot 3. Sequential -a combination of both cross sectional design and longitudinal design -five different age groups studied over time (same individuals over time) -Cons: complicated, took a long time for research -Pros: collect data on five different cohorts, immediate data, measure change over time -potential for cohort effects is still there, repeated testing effects, selective attrition -have problems of longitudinal and cross sectional -compare groups of 35 year olds with other groups -should get same data for 35 year olds if no cohort, repeated testing, selective attrition effects -it’s impossible in theory to eliminate cohort effects Review How is SELECTIVE attrition different from attrition? Selective attrition is different from regular attrition because selective attrition deals with the loss of groups of people who are unable to commit to studies due to external factors. Why is it problematic? In the Sequential design, what can the diagonals tell you? Nightlights and Myopia Myopia: near sightedness -can be caused by size of eye ball -excessive eye growth -due to genes and with environmental influence 1999: reason for environmental influence -Comparative research (observing non-humans) -eye development is influenced by external input including amount of light into eye -the growth of eye in baby chicks is influenced by how much light exposed to in the day -could be what causes it for babies -those who don’t have myopia aren’t exposed to light -Clinic: -studied kids, some myopic and some aren’t (2-16 years old) -asked parents how much light they’re exposed to now and first 2 years of life -significant difference for kids exposed to light before 2 years of age, 50 percent myopic for kids who had room light on, 10 percent myopic for kids who had little to no light -concluded that night light and room light is strongly associated with myopia -Should you avoid nightlights for your children? -when thinking of an intervention, you think you know what the causality is based on the research 2 Kinds of Research 1. Experimental Key Components -can make conclusions about what caused what -you randomly assign your participants to groups (be assured that only difference between individuals in groups is what you did to them as far as treatment) -you are manipulating one of the variables (random assignment) -manipulating independent variable -dependent variable-dependent on outcome of participants based on IV -creates 2 or more groups -they make sure that only difference between two groups is independent variable 2. Correlational -nothing is manipulated -no random assignment into groups -r value can range from -1 to 1 -tells you the strength of the relationship between the variables -how well you can predict one variable from another -positive/negative tells direction relationship -positive: both variables move in the same direction -negative: one variable increases as one decreases -can’t tell you causal relationship