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Chapter 3 notes

by: Jordan Hightower

Chapter 3 notes psy 2110

Jordan Hightower

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These notes go over Frequency, Distribution, Intervals, Range, Real Limits, Midpoint, Cumulative Frequency/Percent, Relative Frequency/Percent, Percentiles and how to interpret, and Plotting Data a...
Statiatics for behavioral sciences
Xiaoxia Song
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jordan Hightower on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to psy 2110 at Ohio University taught by Xiaoxia Song in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Statiatics for behavioral sciences in Psychology And Social Behavior at Ohio University.

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Date Created: 09/06/16
Chapter 3 The goal is to make the date comprehensible Look for trends and patterns Frequency-The number of times an event occurs Ex: number of students in the class who are freshman Frequency Distribution: A distribution in which the values of the dependent variables are put in a table or plotted against their frequencies. Display how often we get a certain score Make a frequency table  List all the values from lowest to highest  List the number of times the frequency occurs Relative Frequency: The number of scores of a given value divided by the total number of scores (which then gives you a decimal) **Don’t use the percentage Group Frequency Distribution For practical reasons we would want to group the data before reporting it The scores are grouped into intervals rather than by themselves Ex: 4,7,8,9 we use 1-3, 4-6, 7-9 Intervals  Range of scores  Must be equal size, cannot overlap  List intervals from lowest to highest  Record the frequency with that interval to determine intervals  Subtract the lowest value from the highest to get the range of the data  Divide the range into reasonable intervals  Intervals of 2,3,5,10  Generally, want 5 or more intervals but less than 15 Ex: 0,1,1,3,4,4,5,8,8,11 Range 11-0=11 1.1 3 2-3 1 4-5 3 6-7 0 8-9 2 10-111 Determining Intervals Use intervals that make sense Real Limits: Decimal values which fall halfway between the top of one interval and bottom of the next Real Lower Limit  Halfway point between the bottom of one interval and the top of the one below it  Subtract .5 from the lowest number in the interval Real Upper Limit:  Halfway point between the top of one interval the bottom of the next  Add .5 to the highest number in the interval Ex: -0.5-1.5 1.5-3.5 3.5-5.5 Midpoint: The center of the interval; the average of the upper and lower limits  Add the upper and lower limit then divide by 2  If only given the midpoint find the distance between the two midpoints. If the distance is 10 between the midpoints, the upper and lower limits will be 5 points above and 5 points below Cumulative Frequency: The number of times scores that are within that interval or smaller intervals appear in the data  Add the frequency of that interval to the frequencies smaller than that interval  Essentially it is a running total of the frequencies Relative Percent: The percent of the data that fall within an interval  Each frequency is expressed as a percent of the total frequency  = (frequency/sample size) * 100 Cumulative Percent: Running total of the relative percentage  The percent of total scores that fall within an interval and smaller intervals  = (cf/n) * 100 Using cumulative percentage Percentile: The percent of the scores that fall at or below a particular score  Look at cumulative percentage and use the upper limit  To determine what score falls at a particular score falls at  To interpret- __% of scores fall at or below at or below that particular score Describing Distributions: The pattern of your scores Symmetrical Distributions: A distribution is symmetric if it has the same shape on both sides of the center, the left and right side are almost identical Skewed Distribution: Skewness- A measure of a distributions asymmetric Tail: The small outside of a distribution Histogram: A graph in which rectangles are used to represent frequencies of observations (scores within each interval)  Make a grouped frequency table  Draw and label your axis o X-axis (horizontal)-midpoint o Y-axis (vertical)-frequency  Draw vertical bars that go up to the frequency for each midpoint o **the bars touch in a histogram Negatively Skewed: A distribution where the tail points to the left Hint:  tail points towards the negative numbers on the x-axis Positively Skewed: A distribution where the tail points to the right Hint:  tail points towards the positive numbers on the x-axis Modality: Describes the number of meaningful peaks of a distribution Unimodal-1 Bimodal-2


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