Chapters 1&2 psyc 166
Popular in General Psychology
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
PSYC 266 - 05
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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Molly Harty on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to psyc 166 at Truman State University taught by Salvatore C. Costa in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Truman State University.
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Date Created: 09/06/16
I. You. Me. Us. A. Psychology is the study of the behavior of other people, one’s own behavior, and how our behavior is affected by groups and social influences. B. Psychologists are interested in studying behavior in nonhuman species as well C. Psych requires that everything be tested and scrutinized in the light of the evidence D. Psychology the science of behavior and mental processes E. Behavior anything an organism does 1. Social behaviors include interacting online and in person F. Mental Processes the pricate experiences that constitute our inner lives 1. Thoughts, feelings, dreams, daydreams, sensations, perceptions, beliefs 2. These are things that others cannot directly observe or experience II. Foundations of Modern Psychology A. Psychology comes from 2 Greek roots 1. Psyche “mind” 2. Logos “study” or “knowledge B. Founding is generally credited to Wilhelm Wundt 1. Established the first scientific laboratory dedicated to the study of psychology a) Made psychology transition from philosophy to science C. The field of psychoogy is an unfolding story of exploration and discovery D. William Wundt, Edward Titchener, and Structuralism 1. Introspection method used by Wundt that was a careful selfexamination and reporting of one’s conscious experiences a) Wundt and his students wanted to break down mental experiences into their component parts 2. Titchener and Wundt developed a school of psychology called structuralism (an approach that attempted to define the structure of the mind by breaking down mental experiences into their component parts 3. Stanley Hall founded the American Psychological Association and serves as its first president; he then founded the first psychology laboratory in the US; played a pivotal role in the early days of psychology E. William James and Functionalism 1. William James is known as the father of American psychology a) Used introspection b) Shifted the focus to the functions of the behavior c) Functionalism the school of psych that focused on how behavior helps individuals adapt to demands placed upon them in the enviornment (1) Concerned with understandiing the functions of mental processes 2. Did not believe that conscious experience can be parceled into discrete elements 3. Consciousness is not that a jigsaw puzzle that can be pieced together from its component parts 4. Functionalists examined the roles of mental processes a) Why we do what we do b) Believes we develop habits because they enable us to perform more effectively in meeting the many demands we face in daily life F. John Watson and Behaviorism 1. Behaviorism credo is that psychology should limit itself to the study of overt behavior that observers could record and measure 2. Founder was John Broadus Watson a) Reasoned that because you can never observe another person’s mental processes, psych would never advance as a science unless it eliminated mentalistic concepts like mind, consciousness, thinking, and feeling. b) Rejected introspection c) Proposed that psych should become a science of behavior and not mental processes d) Science should rely on observable events only e) Behaviorism became the main school of psych in the US 3. B. F. Skinner a) Studied how behavior is shaped by rewards and punishments, the environmental consequences that follow specific responses b) Showed how more complex behaviors could be learned and maintained by manipulation of reinforcers. S c) Argued that human behavior is as much a product of environmental consequences as the behavior of other animals G. Max Wertheimer and Gestalt Psychology 1. Gestalt Psychology the school of psychology that studies the ways in which the brain organizes and structures our perceptions of the world 2. Had the idea that the illusion was not a trick of the eye but reflected higherlevel processes in the brain that created the perception of movement 3. Conducted experiments with Kohler and Koffka a) Led to major discoveries about the nature of perception (1) The process of which we organize our sense impressions and form meaningful representations of the world around us b) Rejected the structuralist belief that mental experience could be understood by breaking it down into its component pards c) Believed the brain organizes our perceptions of the world by grouping elements together into unified or organized wholes 4. “The whole is greater than the sum of the parts” H. Sigmund Freud and Psychoanalysis 1. Focused not only on the mind, but also a region of the mind that lay beyond the reach of ordinary consciousness (the unconscious) a) We may do or say things without understanding the true motives b) Repository of primitive sexual and aggressive drives or instincts and of the wishes, impulses that lie in the murky depths of the unconscious, hidden away from our ordinary awareness of ourselves 2. Believed that early childhood experiences play a determining role in shaping our personalities and behavior, including abnormal behaviors like excessive fears or phobias 3. Abnormal behavior patterns are rooted in unconscious conflicts originating in childhood 4. Psychodynamic Perspective conflicts involve a dynamic struggle within the unconscious mind between unacceptable sexual or aggressive impulses striving for expression and opposing mental forces seeking to keep this threatening material our of conscious awareness 5. Freud was a therapist wanting to help people overcome psychological problems 6. Psychoanalysis a type of mental detective work, incorporating methods such as analysis of dreams and of “slips of the tounge” a) Believed that this could be used to gain insight into the nature of the underlying motives and conflicts of which his patients were unaware III. Contemporary Perspectives in Psychology A. Behavioral Perspective 1. Focuses on observable behavior 2. Socialcognitive theory behavior is shaped not only by environmental factors, but also by cognitive factors a) Challenged their fellow psychologists to find ways to study these mental processes rather than casting them aside as unscientific 3. Behavior Therapy involves the systematic application of learning principles that are grounded in the behaviorist tradition of Watson and Skinner a) Help people acquire more adaptive behaviors to overcome psychological problems such as fears and phobias 4. CognitiveBehavioral Therapy incorporates techniques for changing maladaptive thoughts as well as overt behaviors B. Psychodynamic Perspective 1. Continues to evolve 2. Tends to place less emphasis on basic drives like sex and aggression that Freud did and more emphasis on processes of selfawareness, selfdirection, and conscious choice 3. Influenced popular literature, art, and culture C. Humanistic Perspective 1. Humanistic Psychology a response to the two dominant perspects a) Rejected the deterministic views of behaviorism and psychodynamic psychology b) Believe that free will and conscious choice are essential aspects of the human experience 2. Believe that psychology should focus on conscious experiences, even if they are subjective and cannot be observed and measured 3. Emphasize the value of selfawareness and of becoming an authentic person by being true to oneself. D. The Physiological Perspective 1. Examines relationships between biological processes and behavior 2. Identified not with any one contributor, but rather, with many people who focus on the biological bases of behavior and mental processes 3. Evolutionary psychology is a movement within modern psychology that applies principles derived from Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution to a wide range of behavior a) Believe that behavioral tendencies or predispositions such as aggressive tendencies, might be rooted in our genes, having been passed along from generation to generation from ancestral times all the way down the genetic highway to us E. Cognitive Perspective 1. Study people’s mental processes in an effort to understand how people gain knowledge about themselves and the world around them 2. Study the mental processes by which we acquire knowledge 3. Believe the methods they use to study cognitions are well grounded in the scientific tradition F. Sociocultural Perspective 1. Examine how behavior and attitudes are shaped by the social and cultural influences of age, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, lifestyle, income level, disability status, and culture on behavior and mental processes G. No one perspective is necessarily right and the others wrong H. Positive Psychology directed toward the study of positive aspects of human experiences, such as love, happiness, altruism, and hope IV. Psychologists and What they Do A. Some conduct basic research, research that seeks to expand our understanding of psychological phenomena even if such knowledge does not lead directly to any practical benefits B. Some conduct applied research, research intended to find solutions to specific problems V. Specialty Areas of Psychology A. Experimental Psychologists 1. Apply experimental methods to the study of behavior and mental processes 2. Study learning, sensation and perception, cognition B. Comparative Psychologists 1. Seek to understand animal behavior for its own sake and possibly for what it might teach us about human behavior C. Physiological Psychologists 1. Study the biological bases of behavior D. Clinical Psychologists 1. Evaluate and treat people with psychological disorders 2. May use psychotherapy E. Psychiatrists 1. Medical doctors who complete residency training in the medical specialty of psychiatry 2. CAN prescribe drugs F. Counseling Psychologists 1. Help people who have adjustment problems that are usually not as severe as the kinds of problems that clinical psychologists treat G. School Psychologists 1. Help children with academic, emotional, and behavioral problems and evaluate students for placement in special education programs H. Educational Psychologists 1. Develop tests that measure intellectual ability or academic potential, help gear training approaches to students’ learning styles, and create ways of helping students reach their maximum academic potential I. Developmental Psychologists 1. Study people’s physical, cognitive, social, and personality development throughout the lifespan J. Personality Psychologists 1. Seek to understand the nature of personality the cluster of psychological characteristics and behaviors that distinguishes us as unique individuals and leads us to act consistently over time K. Social Psychologists 1. Study how group of social influences affect behavior and attitudes L. Environmental Psychologist 1. Study relationships between the physical environment and behavior M. Industrial/Organizational Psychologists 1. Study people at work N. Health Psychologists 1. Study how such psychological factors as stress, lifestyle, and attitude affect physical health O. Consumer Psychologists 1. Interested in understanding consumer behavior P. Neuropsychologists 1. Study relationships between the brain and behavior Q. Geropsychologists 1. Focus on psychological processes associated with aging R. Forensic Psychologist 1. Works within the legal system S. Sport Psychologists 1. Apply psychological principles and techniques to sports and athletic competition VI. Professional Psychology is becoming more diverse A. Christine LaddFranklin 1. Completed all the requirements for a PhD but was not awarded the doctoral degree 2. Earliest women pioneer in psychology 3. New theory of color vision B. Mary Whiton Calkins 1. Harvard denied her doctorate because she was a woman 2. Became the first female president of the APA C. Margaret Floy Washburn 1. First woman to earn a PhD in psychology D. Francis Sumner 1. First african american to earn a PhD is psych E. J. Henry Alston 1. First african american to publish his research findings VII. Research Methods A. Empirical Approach basing their beliefs on evidence gathered from experiments and careful observation B. Scientific Methodframework for acquiring knowledge based on careful observation and the use of experimental methods 1. Develop a research question 2. Hypothesis precise prediction that can be tested through research a) Often drawn from theories 3. Gathering evidence to test the hypothesis 4. Drawing conclusions about the hypothesis a) Statistics branch of math involving methods of tabulating and analyzing numerical data b) Replication the attempt to duplicate findings reported by others to determine whether they will occur again under the same experimental conditions C. Case Study Method 1. Indepth study of one or more individuals 2. Psychologist draws info from the interviews, observation, or written records 3. Jean Piaget used this method D. Survey Method 1. Gathers info from target groups of people through the use of structured interviews or questionnaires a) Structured interview a questioning technique that follows a preset series of questions in a particular order b) Questionnaire a written set of questions or statements to which people can reply by marking responses on an answer form c) Population represents the total group of people who are the subjects of interest d) Samples segments of the population e) Random sampling technique where individuals are selected at random from a given population for participation in a sample f) Social desirability bias the tendency to respond to questions in a socially desirable manner g) Volunteer bias arises when people who volunteer have characteristics that make them unrepresentative of the population from which they were drawn E. Naturalistic Observation Method 1. Takes the laboratory “into the field” to directly observe the behavior of humans or other animal species in their natural habitats or environments 2. Observers try to avoid interfering with the behaviors they are observing 3. Problems may arise if observers introduce their own biases a) Preconceived ideas (1) Random spot checks to ensure this is not the case 4. Lacks the controls available in controlled experiments, but it can provide insights into behavior as it occurs under natural conditions F. The Correlational Method 1. Used to examine the relationships between variables 2. Correlation coefficient statistical measure of association between two variables a) Allow us to predict one variable on the basis of the other 3. The fact that two variables are correlated, doesn’t mean that one causes the other 4. Several benefits a) Offers clues to underlying causes b) Can identify groups of people at high risk for physical or behavioral problems c) Increases understanding of relationships between variables or events G. The Experimental Method 1. Investigators directly explore causeandeffect relationships by manipulating certain variables and observing their effects on certain outcomes 2. Independent variables manipulates and their effects on the dependent variable is measured 3. Dependent variables measures of these variables depend on the independent variable 4. Operational definitions used to define variables on the basis of the operations or procedures they use to measure those variables 5. Control groups used to ensure that the effects of an independent variable are not due to other factors 6. Random assignment used to place participants randomly in experimental groups or control groups 7. Placebo effect purpose is to control 8. Placebo used in the placebo effect to resemble the active drug 9. Single blind studies only the participants are kept in the dark 10. Double blind studies both the participants and the experimenters are “blinded” VIII. Anatomy of a Research Study A. Study Hypothesis B. Procedure C. Results and Discussion D. Citing References IX. Ethical Principles in Research A. Code of ethics that respects the dignity and welfare of their clients and those who participate in their research studies B. Ethics review committees generally composed of professionals and laypeople C. Informed consent participants must be given enough information about the study’s methods and purposes to make an “informed” decision about whether or not they wish to participate D. Must protect the confidentiality of the records or research participants E. Also extend to the use of ethical treatment of animals Vocab: I. Structure of a Neuron A. Neuron nerve cell B. Brain the mass of nerve tissue encased in the skull that controls virtually everything we are and everything we do C. Soma the cell body of a neuron that contains the nucleus of the cell and carries out the cell’s metabolic functions D. Axon the tubelike part of a neuron that carries messages away form the cell body toward other neurons E. Terminal buttons swelling at the tips of axons from which neurotransmitters are dispatched into the synapse F. Neurotransmitters chemical messengers that transport neural impulses from one nerve cell to another G. Synapse the small fluid/filled gap between neurons through which neurotransmitters carry neural impulses H. Dendrites rootlike structures at the end of axons that receive neural impulses from neighboring neurons I. Sensory neurons transmit info from sensory organs to the spinal cord and brain J. Motor neurons neurons that convey neural impulses from the central nervous system to muscles and glands K. Glands body organs or structures that produce secretions called hormones L. Hormones secretions from endocrine glands that help regulate bodily processes M. Interneurons nerve cells within the central nervous system that process information N. Nerve a bundle of axons from different neurons that transmit neural impulses O. Glial cells small but numerous cells in the nervous system that support neurons and that form the myelin sheath found on many axons P. Myelin sheath a layer of protective insulation that covers the axons of certain neurons and helps speed transmission of neural impulses Q. Nodes of Ranvier gaps in the myelin sheath that create non insulated areas along the axons II. How Neurons Communicate A. Ions electrically charged chemical particles B. Resting potential the electrical potential across the cell membrane of a neuron in its resting state C. Depolarization a positive shift in the electrical charge in the neuron’s resting potential, making it less negatively charged D. Action potential an abrupt change from a negative to a positive charge of a nerve cell, also called a neural impulse E. all/or/none principle the principle by which neurons will fire only when a change in the level of excitation occurs that is sufficient to produce an action potential F. Refractory period a temporary state in which a neuron is unable to fire in response to continued stimulation III. Neurotransmitters: The Nervous System’s Chemical Messengers A. Receptor site a site on the receiving neuron in which neurotransmitters dock B. Reuptake the process by which neurotransmitters are reabsorbed by the transmitting neuron C. Enzymes organic substances that produce certain chemical changes in other organic substances through a catalytic action D. Neuromodulators chemicals released in the nervous system that influence the sensitivity of the receiving neuron to neurotransmitters E. Antagonists drugs that block the actions of neurotransmitters by occupying the receptor sites in which the neurotransmitters dock F. Schizophrenia a severe and chronic psychological disorder characterized by disturbances in thinking, perception, emotions, and behavior G. Hallucinations perceptions that are experienced in the absence of external stimuli H. Delusions fixed but patently false beliefs such as believing that one is being hounded by demons I. Parkinson’s Disease a progressive brain disease involving destruction of dopamine producing brain cells and characterized by muscle tremors, shakiness, rigidity, and difficulty in walking and controlling fine body movements J. Agonists drugs that either increase the availability or effectiveness of neurotransmitters or mimic their actions K. Stimulant a drug that activates the central nervous system L. Amphetamines a class of synthetically derived stimulant drugs M. Antidepressants drugs that combat depression by affecting the levels or activity of neurotransmitters N. Endorphins natural chemicals released in the brain that have pain killing and pleasure inducing effects IV. Central Nervous System A. Central nervous system the part of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord B. Spinal cord the column of nerves that transmits information between the brain and the peripheral nervous system C. Spine the protective bony column that houses the spinal cord D. Reflex an automatic, unlearned response to particular stimuli E. Spinal reflex a reflex controlled at the level of the spinal cord that may involve as few as two neurons V. The Peripheral Nervous System A. Peripheral nervous system the part of the nervous system that connects the spinal cord and brain with the sensory organs, muscles, and glands B. Somatic nervous system the part of the peripheral nervous system that transmits info between the central nervous system and the sensory organs and muscles; controls voluntary movements C. Autonomic nervous system the part of the peripheral nervous system that automatically regulates involuntary bodily processes D. Sympathetic nervous system the branch of the autonomic nervous system that accelerates bodily processes and releases stores of energy needed to meet increased physical demands E. Parasympathetic nervous system branch of the autonomic nervous system that regulates bodily processes that replenish stores of energy VI. The Hindbrain A. Hindbrain the lowest and oldest part of the brain; includes the medulla, pons, and cerebellum B. Medulla in the hindbrain; regulates basic life functions C. Pons in the hindbrain; regulates states of wakefulness and sleep D. Brain Stem the “stalk” in the lower part of the brain that connects the spinal cord to higher regions of the brain E. Cerebellum in the hindbrain; controls coordination and balance VII. The Midbrain A. Midbrain lies on the top of the hindbrain and below the forebrain B. Reticular formation a weblike formation of neurons involved in regulating states of attention, alertness, and arousal VIII. The Forebrain A. Forebrain largest and uppermost part; contains the thalamus, hypothalamus, limbic system, basal ganglia, and cerebral cortex B. Thalamus in the forebrain; relay station for sensory information and that plays a key role in regulating states of wakefulness and sleep C. Basal ganglia assemblage of neurons lying in the forebrain that is important in controlling movement and coordination D. Hypothalamus small, pea/sized in the forebrain; regulates many vital bodily functions E. Limbic system in the forebrain; includes the hippocampus, amygdala, and parts of the thalamus and hypothalamus F. Amygdala set of almondshaped structures; in the limbic system; plays an important role in aggression, rage, and fear G. Hippocampus in limbic system; involved in memory function IX. The Cerebral Cortex A. Cerebral cortex the wrinkled, outer layer of gray matter that covers the cerebral hemispheres; controls higher mental functions B. Cerebrum largest mass of the forebrain; consisting of two cerebral hemispheres C. Cerebral hemispheres the right and left masses of the cerebrum; joined by the corpus callosum D. Corpus callosum thick bundle of nerve fibers that connects the two cerebral hemispheres E. Occipital lobes cerebral cortex; located at the back of both cerebral hemispheres; process visual stimuli F. Parietal lobes cerebral cortex; located on the side of each cerebral hemisphere; process bodily functions G. Somatosensory cortex parietal lobe; processes info about touch and pressure on the skin, as well as the position of the parts of our bodies as we move about H. Frontal lobes parts of the cerebral cortex; front of the cerebral hemispheres; that are considered the “exec center” of the brain because of their role in higher mental functions I. Motor cortex region of the frontal lobes involved in regulating body movement J. Mirror neurons fire both when an action is performed and when the same action is merely observed K. Temporal lobes parts of the cerebral cortex lying beneath and somewhat behind the frontal lobes that are involved in processing auditory stimuli L. Association areas cerebral cortex; piece together sensory info to form meaningful perceptions of the world and perform higher mental functions X. Recording and Imaging Techniques A. EEG records electrical activity in your brain B. CT an x/ray beam is passed through the body at different angles to generate a 3D image of bodily structures; also called a CAT scan C. PET radioactive sugar tracer is injected into the bloodstream and used to measure levels of activity of various parts of the brain D. MRI uses a magnetic field to create a computerized image of internal bodily structures XI. Experimental Methods A. Lesioning in studies of brain functioning, the intentional destruction of brain tissue in order to observe the effects on behavior B. Electrical recording as a method of investigating brain functioning, a process of recording the electrical changes that occur in a specific neuron or groups of neurons in the brain in relation to particular activities or behaviors C. Electrical stimulation as a method of investigating brain functioning, a process of electrically stimulating particular parts of the brain to observe the effects on behavior XII. The Brain At Work: Lateralization and Integration A. Laterization the specialization of the right and left cerebral hemispheres for particular functions B. Broca’s Area an area of the left frontal lobe involved in speech C. Wernicke’s Area an area of the left temporal lobe involved in processing written and spoken language D. Aphasia loss or impairment of the ability to understand or express language XIII. SplitBrain Research A. Epilepsy neurological disorder; characterized by seizures that involve sudden, violent discharges of electrical activity in the brain B. split/brain patients people with a corpus callosum that has been surgically severed XIV. Brain Damage and Psychological Functioning A. Prefrontal cortex area of the frontal lobe that lies in front of the motor cortex and that is involved in higher mental functions B. Plasticity the ability of the brain to adapt itself after trauma or surgical alteration XV. Endocrine System A. Endocrine System body’s system of glands that release their secretions, called hormones, directly into the bloodstream B. Pancreas an endocrine gland located near the stomach that produces the hormone insulin C. Homeostasis the tendency of systems to maintain a steady, internally balanced state D. Pituitary gland endocrine gland in the brain that produces various hormones involved in growth, regulation of the menstrual cycle, and childbirth E. Pineal gland small endocrine gland in the brain that produces the hormone melatonin; involved in regulating sleepwake cycles F. Adrenal glands pair of endocrine glands located just above the kidneys that produce various stress/related hormones G. Gonads sex glands that produce sex hormones and germ cells H. Ovaries female gonads which secrete estrogen and progesterone and produce mature egg cells I. Testes male gonads which secrete testosterone and produces sperm J. Germ cells sperm and egg cells from which new life develops XVI. Hormones and Behavior A. Thyroid gland an endocrine gland in the neck that secretes the hormone thyroxin, which is involved in regulating metabolic functions and physical growth B. Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) a cluster of physical and psychological symptoms occurring in the few days preceding the menstrual flow XVII. Genes and Behavior A. Genotypean organism’s genetic code B. Genes basic units of heredity that contain an individual’s genetic code C. DNA the genetic makeup of a human person D. Chromosomesrodlike structures in the cell nucleus that house an individual’s genetic code XVIII. Genetic Influences on Behavior A. nature/nurture debate the debate in psychology about the relative influences of genetics (nature) and the environment (nurture) in determining behavior B. Phenotype observable physical and behavioral characteristics of an organism, representing the influences of the genotype and environment C. Polygenic traits traits that are influenced by multiple genes interacting in complex ways XIX. Kinship Studies A. Familial association studies examine the degree to which disorders or characteristics are shared among family members XX. Twin Studies A. Identical twins twins who developed from the same zygote and so have identical genes B. Zygote a fertilized egg cell C. Fraternal twins twins who developed from separate zygotes and so have 50 percent of their genes in common D. Twin Studies examine the degree to which concordance rates between twin pairs for particular disorders or characteristics vary in relation to whether the twins are identical or fraternal E. Concordance rates in twin studies; the percentages of cases in which both members of twin pairs share the same trait or disorder XXI. Adoptee Studies examine whether adoptees are more similar to their biological parents or adoptive parents with respect to their psychological traits or to the disorders they develop
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