First Week Notes
First Week Notes BIOL 2457
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sabera Notetaker on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2457 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Xavier G Aranda in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY I in Biology at University of Texas at Arlington.
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Date Created: 09/06/16
Chapter 1 Anatomy The study of the structure of body parts and their relationship to one another. This can be seen, felt, and examined closely. Physiology The study of the function of body parts and how they work to carry out activities. This is only explainable in terms of the underlying anatomy. Subdivisions of Anatomy: Gross/ Macroscopic Anatomy is the study of large structures visible to the naked eye. This includes structures such as the heart, lungs, and kidneys. Some different approaches to gross anatomy include: Regional Anatomy This looks at all structures in a particular area of the body (muscles, blood vessels, nerves, etc.) Systemic Anatomy This looks at just one system at a time. For example, if you were studying at the nervous system, you would examine the brain and nerves. Surface Anatomy This studies internal structures as they relate to overlying skin surface. By using the visible surface, it is easy to identify the underlying structures, such as veins or blood vessels when needing to take blood. Microscopic Anatomy studies structures too small to be seen by the naked eye. Some specific methods include: Cytology The study of cells Histology The study of tissues Developmental Anatomy studies structural changes that occur in the body throughout the life span. Some specific methods include: Embryology study of developments before birth Subdivisions of Physiology: Physiology concerns the functional parts of the body and is divided into different regions, each with their own specificities; based by its organ systems (renal, cardiovascular, nervous, etc.) By looking at how the body’s dependency on chemical reactions is on each cell, physiology often focuses on cellular and molecular levels of the body. Principle of complementarity of structure and function: This states that anatomy and physiology are inseparable. The function always reflects on the structure Structural Organization of Body: Chemical Level Atoms, molecules, and organelles Atoms, tiny building blocks or matter, combine to become a molecule. Molecules, such as water and proteins, associate to form organelles. Organelles are the basic components of microscopic cells Cellular Level A single cell The simplest living creatures are single cells, but have common functions to the body Tissue Level Groups of similar cells that have a common function Four basic tissue types in the body: epithelium, muscle tissue, connective tissue, and nervous tissue Organ Level Two or more tissues Organs are tissues that form specific functions for the body (stomach, heart, liver) Organ System Level Organs that work closely together There are 11 organ systems (discussed below) that work together to help the body function Organismal Level All organ systems combined to make a whole system The organism here is the living human being, representing the sum total of all structural levels working together to help keep us alive Necessary Life Functions: Maintaining Boundaries Separating the internal and external environments so they remain distinct from one another Integumentary system (skin) protects the internal organs from harmful exposure from external environment Plasma membrane protects cells by regulating what goes in and out Movement activities promoted by the muscular and skeletal systems allow for movement of our bodies so they may functions properly. Contractility is the ability for movement of muscle cells at the cellular level Responsiveness/ Excitability the ability to sense changes in the environment and respond to them Withdrawal reflex involuntarily moving in response to a stimuli to prevent from injury Ex: High levels of carbon dioxide in your body will cause you to breath more rapidly Digestion breakdown of ingested food into simple molecules that can be absorbed into the blood Metabolism All chemical reactions that occur within body cells Includes breaking down substances (catabolism), synthesizing complex structures (anabolism), and using the nutrients and oxygen to for ATP Excretion removal of waste from the metabolism and digestion Urea is excreted from breaking down proteins (metabolism) Carbon dioxide from metabolism Feces from unabsorbed foods Reproduction occurs at the cellular and organismal level Cellular reproduction involves division of cells to produce two daughter cells that are then used for body growth and repair Organismal reproduction involves the production of an offspring Growth Increase in size of a body part or the organism as a whole by gradual development Humans are Multicellular (we consist of many cells) so to function properly, all individual cells must be kept alive. All cells depend on organ systems to meet their survival needs, which is why organs are designed to service the cells 11 Organ Systems: Integumentary System (skin, hair, nails) Forms external body covering Protects deeper tissues from injury Synthesizes vitamin D Houses cutaneous receptors (pain and pressure) and sweat/oil glands Skeletal System (bones) Protects and supports body organs Provides framework the muscles use to cause movement Blood cells formed within bone Bones store minerals Muscular System (muscles) Allows manipulation of environment, locomotion, and facial expression Maintains posture Produces heat Nervous System (brain and nerves) Fastacting control system body Responds to internal and external changes by activating muscles and glands Endocrine System (glands) Secrete hormones that regulate processes Processes: growth, reproduction, and metabolism of body cells Cardiovascular System (heart and blood vessels) Blood vessels transport blood Blood vessels carry oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, and waste Heart pumps blood Lymphatic System (immunity) Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels are returns to blood Disposes debris in lymphatic stream Houses white blood cells (lymphocytes) Immune response attacks against foreign substances in body Respiratory System (lungs) Keeps blood constantly supplied with oxygen Removes carbon dioxide Gas exchange occurs through walls of air sacks in lungs Digestive System (mouth, esophagus, stomach, liver, intestines, rectum, anus) Breaks down food for absorption into blood and distributed to body cells Indigestible foods are eliminated as feces Urinary System (kidneys, ureter, bladder, urethra) Eliminates nitrogenous waste Regulates water, electrolytes, and acidbase balance of the blood Male Reproductive System (prostate, penis, testis, urethra) Overall function to produce offspring Testis produce sperm and male sex hormone Ducts and glands deliver sperm to female reproductive tract Female Reproductive System Overall function to produce offspring Ovaries produce eggs and female sex hormones Remaining structure aid in fertilization and development of fetus Mammary glands of breasts produce milk to nourish newborn Survival Needs: Stable amounts of these factors needed for human survival. Too much can be harmful and have adverse effects. Nutrients Chemical substances used for energy and cell building Carbohydrates major source of energy Proteins needed for cell building and cell chemistry Fats reserve of energy; longterm energy storage Minerals and Vitamins required for chemical reactions in cell and oxygen transport to blood Oxygen Needed for release of energy from foods Body can only survive a few minutes without oxygen 20% of the air we breathe is oxygen Water Most abundant chemical in body Provides environment needed for chemical reactions Fluid base for secretions and excretions Accounts for 6080% of our body’s weight Normal Body Temperature cannot fall below 37C or else chemical reactions will be affected Appropriate Atmospheric Pressure needed for adequate breathing and gas exchange in lungs Homeostasis Homeostasis is the ability to maintain stable internal conditions even though the outside world changes continuously; needs are adequately met and it is functioning smoothly. Dynamic state of equilibrium is constantly readjusting to maintain balance. All organ systems contribute in maintaining homeostasis, but mainly the Nervous System and Endocrine System. Variables are factors that can change, such as body temperature, and blood sugar. Homeostatic Controls Receptor (sensor) Monitor environment Responds to stimuli (things causing changes) Control Center (brain) Determines which variable has changed Receives input from receptor and determines an appropriate response Effector (responder) Receives output from control center and provides a response Response is either Negative feedback (reduces stimulus) or Positive feedback (enhances stimulus) Negative feedback Mostused feedback system Shuts off original stimulus Variable changes in the opposite direction of the initial change Ex: regulation of body temperature (nervous and skeletal system) by shivering Ex: regulation of blood glucose levels (endocrine system) by releasing hormone insulin Positive feedback Enhances original stimulus Cascade effect causing variable to continue in same direction of the initial change Controls infrequent events that don’t need continuous adjustment Ex: enhancing labor contractions by releasing the hormone oxytocin Ex: platelet plug formation for blood clotting Homeostatic Imbalance: If homeostasis is disturbed, there is a higher risk of disease As a person ages, control systems become less efficient and can become more imbalanced If prolonged negative feedback, positive feedback will take over and have adverse effects. For example, if your heart becomes overwhelmed by a disturbance, it can lead to a heart failure. Anatomical and Directional Terms: Anatomical Position reference of standard body position: Body erect Feet slightly apart Palms facing forward Thumbs pointing away from body Directional terms describes where one body structure is in relation to another body structure Direction based on standard anatomical position Always looking at the right and left of the body being observed rather than right and left of observer (ex: heart is on the right of the person being observed but left of the observer) Superior (cranial) Towards the head/ towards upper part of body Inferior (caudal) Away from the head/ towards lower part of body Anterior (ventral) towards the front of the body; in front of Posterior (dorsal) – towards the back of the body; behind Medial (middle) – towards the middle of the body; inner side of body Lateral (outer) – away from middle of the body; outer side of body Intermediate between the middle and lateral side of body Proximal Closer to origin of body of attachment Distal further from origin of body of attachment Superficial (external) – towards the body surface Deep (internal) – away from body surface; internal Regional Terms: Axial head, neck, and trunk Appendicular limbs (arms and legs) Body planes Surfaces along the body that can be cut for anatomical study: Sagittal plane Divides vertically into right and left parts Midsagittal plane cut made perfectly down the middle Parasagittal plane cut is offcentered, not in the middle Frontal (coronal) plane Divides vertically into anterior and posterior (front and back) parts Transverse (horizontal) plane Divides horizontally into superior and inferior (top and bottom) parts Produces a cross section Oblique plane Cuts at an angle other than 90 to vertical plane Oblique Plane Body Cavities: Cavities are closed regions that protect organs within from the outside environment Dorsal Body Cavity Protects nervous system Cranial cavity encases brain Vertebral cavity encases spinal cord Ventral Body Cavity Houses internal organs (called viscera) Thoracic cavity two pleura cavities (surrounding lungs), mediastinum (surrounds thoracic organs), and pericardial cavity (surrounding heart) Abdominopelvic cavity Abdominal cavity (stomach, intestines, spleen, and liver) and pelvic cavity (bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum) Serosa (serous membrane) thin doublelayered membrane covering ventral body cavity o parietal serosa lines internal cavity walls and visceral serosa covers internal organs. o Serosa fluid between the two serosa prevent friction Abdominopelvic Quadrant Regions: Right hypochondriac region Epigastric region Left hypochondriac region Right lumbar region Umbilical region Left lumber region Right Iliac (inguinal) region Hypogastric region Left iliac (inguinal) region
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