New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Second Week Notes

by: Sabera Notetaker

Second Week Notes BIOL 2457

Sabera Notetaker

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Chapter 2 notes
Xavier G Aranda
Class Notes
anatomy, Physiology, Biology
25 ?





Popular in Biology

This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sabera Notetaker on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2457 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Xavier G Aranda in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY I in Biology at University of Texas at Arlington.


Reviews for Second Week Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/06/16
Chapter 2  Chemistry and Biochemistry are important for determining effective solutions for  dehydration, fluid loss, and electrolyte imbalances  Water follows sodium in a cell, which is why it is important to find the right calculations  of sodium into the body to rehydrate patients Chemistry­ chemical reactions that underlies all physiological processes including movement,  digestion, pumping of the heart, and the nervous system ­ Chemistry is broken down into two 2 processes: Basic Chemistry and Biochemistry Basic Chemistry Matter­ anything that has mass and occupies space   Can be seen, smelled, and felt  Mass is considered the same as weight with the effects varying with gravity   Ex: Elements on a periodic table are all considered matter  Matter exists in three (3) states: o Solid­ definite shape and volume o Liquid­ definite volume with changeable shape o Gas­ changeable shape and volume Energy­ capacity to do work or put matter into motion  No mass, doesn’t occupy space, and can only be measured by its effect on matter  The greater the work, the more energy it uses  Energy exists in two (2) forms: o Kinetic energy­ energy in action; energy that does work by moving objects o Potential energy­ stored energy (inactive)  When stored (potential) energy is released, it is converted into kinetic energy    All living things are composed of matter and they all require energy to grow and function Heat is the random motion of atoms that undergo kinetic energy  Forms of energy used in the body: o Chemical energy­ stored in bonds of chemical substances (releases energy when  bonds break) o Electrical energy­ results from movement of charged particles (found in  electrons in house wiring, or in the body as ions in the cell membrane) o Mechanical energy­ Directly involved in moving matter  o Radiant/ electromagnetic energy­ travels in waves including light (important for vision), infrared waves, radio waves, ultraviolet waves (important for vitamin D  synthesis), and X rays  Energy can be converted from one form to another, but is virtually ineffective because  the energy that is gained is lost in the same amount (ex: electrical energy to light energy) Elements­ unique substances that can’t be broken down into simpler substances (all matter is  composed of elements)  The Periodic Table shows all known elements  Four (4) major elements make up 96% of the body: o Carbon (C) o Oxygen (O) o Hydrogen (H) o Nitrogen (N) Atoms­ all elements are made up of atoms; they are:  Unique building blocks for each element  clusters of smaller particles called protons, neutrons, and electrons  The smallest particles of an element with the same properties  They give each element its own particular physical and chemical properties > Physical properties: color, texture, boiling and freezing point > Chemical properties: bonding behavior/ interaction with other atoms Atomic Symbol­ one or two lettered chemical abbreviation for an element  Symbols are taken from the Latin name for the element  E.g. Na is the atomic symbol for sodium, otherwise known as the Latin word Natrium Subatomic particles­ particles that make up an atom  A central nucleus contains protons and neutrons tightly bound together; orbiting around  the nucleus are surrounding electrons  There are three (3) types of structures that make up atoms o Proton­ carries a positive (+) charge and weighs 1 atomic mass unit (1 amu) o Neutron­ has no electrical charge and weighs 1 amu o Electron­ carries a negative (­) charge with weighing nothing (0 amu)  All atoms are electrically neutral because the number of protons in an atom is balanced  by its number of electrons  The number of protons and electrons is always equal: Iron (Fe) has 26 protons and 26  electrons  There are two models that show how subatomic particles look:             Planetary model                                   Orbital model                               Each element has a different number of subatomic particles, which can be identified by  looking at the atomic and mass number, isotopes, and atomic weight > Hydrogen (H): 1 proton, 1 electron, 0 neutron > Helium (He): 2 protons, 2 electrons, 2 neutrons Atomic Number­ the number of protons in a nucleus (seen at the top left of the subscript)  Mass Number­ total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus (seen at the bottom left)              Atomic Number 6              Atomic Symbol C               Atomic Mass 12.011              Atomic Weight­ the average mass number of all isotopes of an element Isotopes­ structural variations of the same element  These atoms contain the same number of protons but different neutron  Same atomic number but different atomic mass  Isotopes of Hydrogen may look like this > Hydrogen (1 proton, 1 electron, 0 neutrons) > Deuterium (1 proton, 0 electrons, 1 neutron) > Tritium (1 proton, 1 electron, 2 neutrons) Radioisotopes­ heavy, unstable isotopes that decompose into simpler and more stable forms  An atom will loses its subatomic particles and may even become a different element  As the isotope decays it gives off energy called radioactivity  Radioisotopes share the same chemistry as their more stable isotope   They can be detected by scanners which makes it a valuable tool in the medical research;  used to detect different diseases  They can damage living tissue; some can destroy cancers, and some can be the cause of it > Radon from uranium decay causes lung cancer Molecule­ two (2) or more atoms bonded together  H  or2O 2 Compound­ specific molecule that has two (2) or more different atoms bonded together H O 2 Mixtures­ two (2) or more components physically intermixed  True mixtures are transparent (air, salt, sugar solutes); most mixtures in our body are true  mixtures of gasses, liquids, or solids dissolved in water  Solvent­ substance present as greatest amount (liquids e.g. water)  Solute­ substance present as smallest amount (e.g. sugar, salt, plasma)  Most matter exists as mixtures o Solutions­ homogenous mixture; particles are evenly distributed (salt in water) o Colloids/ Emulsions­ heterogeneous mixtures; particles not evenly distributed;  give off cloudy or milky appearance (some undergo so­gel reaction; from liquid to solid such as Jell­O or cystol) o Suspensions­ heterogeneous mixtures with large solutes that don’t settle out  (blood) Concentration of True Solutes 1. Percent of solute in total solution > how many parts of solute to solvent in a solution (e.g. 10 parts of salt and 90 parts water makes 10% salt) 2. Milligrams/Deciliter (mg/dl) >  1 deciliter = 1/100   liter 3. Molarity (M) > 1 mole of a compound has the same molecular weight of that compound > 1 mole = 6.02 X 10  this is known as Avogadro’s number > Molarity in body is expressed as millimoles (mM)  1M = 1000mM The differences between compounds and mixtures: ­ Mixtures don’t involve chemical bonds  ­ Mixtures can be separated physically (filtering and straining) ­ Compounds can only be separated by breaking chemical bonds ­  Mixtures can be both heterogeneous and homogeneous ­ Compounds can only be homogenous Chemical Bonds­ “energy relationships” between electrons of the reacting atoms that can be  made or broken (they are not physical structures)  Electrons determine whether a chemical reaction will happen and what kind of chemical  bond will form Electron Shells­ space around the nucleus where electrons are occupied  Shells are referred to as energy levels because each shell has electrons with kinetic and  potential energy  An atom can have up to 7 electron shells that can hold only a specific number of  electrons   Shells closes to the nucleus is filled first; > Shell 1­ holds 2 electrons > Shell 2­ holds a max of 8 electrons > Shell 3­ holds a max of 18 electrons  Valence shell is the outermost electron shell that holds the most potential energy (because they’re farthest from the nucleus) and are involved in chemical reactions Octet Rule  All atoms (except small atoms H and He) desire 8 electrons in their valence shell  The desire of 8 electrons is what drives chemical reactions  (Noble gasses have 8 electrons so they aren’t as chemically reactive)  Most atoms don’t have full valence shells, so atoms will gain, lose, or share electrons  from bonds to fill 8 electrons in the valence shell Types of Bonds Ionic Bonds  Ions­ atoms that have gained or lost electrons and become charged  In ionic bonds, valence shell electrons are transferred form one atom to another, making  them ions  An ionic bond is the result of the attraction of opposite charges o Cation­ atom that lost one or more elections (negatively charged)  o Anion­ atom that has gained one or more elections (positively charged)  Most ionic compounds are salts (NaCl) Covalent Bonds  The sharing of two or more valence elections  between two atoms  2 electrons= Single bond  4 electrons= Double bond  6 electrons= Triple bond                           This allows the atoms to temporarily fill their valence shell  There are two (2) types of covalent bonds:  Nonpolar covalent bond­ equal sharing of electrons (electrically balanced)                                                 C     O      C  Polar covalent bonds­ unequal sharing of electrons (electrically polar molecules) > Electronegative­ atoms with greater electron­attracting ability > Electropositive­ Atoms with less electron­attracting ability                                                                     O                                                                           H       H  Water (H 2) is polar: oxygen is electronegative/ hydrogen is electropositive  Dipole­ molecules with different charges (+, ­) such as H O 2 Hydrogen Bonds  “Attraction between a hydrogen attached to an electronegative atom on one molecule and an electronegative molecule of another atom of a different molecule”  Hydrogen is slightly positive (electropositive), so it can attract other negative molecules  Acts as a “bridge” holding large molecules  Common between dipoles like H O; 2his is what makes water liquid  Surface tension is the result of a strong attraction between water molecules due to  hydrogen bonding Chemical reactions­ chemical bonds being formed, rearrange, or broken  Written into a chemical equation containing: o Reactants­ substances at the beginning of the reaction o Products­ result of the chemical reaction  Molecular formula includes a subscript indicating the atom and a prefix indicating the  number of unjointed atoms/molecules Reactants Products H + H     H 2(Hydrogen gas) 4H + 1C             CH4 (Methane)  Three main types of chemical reactions: o Synthesis­ atoms/molecule combining together to form large molecules  *(Anabolic reactions­ Bond­building)                                     A + B  AB o Decomposition­ breakdown of molecules into smaller molecules *(Catabolic reaction­ bond­breaking)                                     AB  A + B o Exchange (displacement)­ both synthesis and decomposition of molecules                                AB + CD  AD + CB  Redox Reaction (reduction­oxidation) o Atoms are reduced when they gain an election o Atoms are oxidized when they lose and electron o C H6O 12 66  → 6C2  + 6H O2+ ATP 2(*glucose oxidized, oxygen reduced)  Exergonic­ reactions release/ give off energy (catabolic reaction); products have more  potential energy than reactants  Endergonic­ energy absorbs/ uses up energy (anabolic reaction); products have less  potential energy than reactants The speed of chemical reactions is affected by: ­Temperature; increased temperature= increased reaction rate ­Concentration of reactant; increased concentration= increased reaction rate ­Particle size; smaller particle= increased reaction rate Biochemistry Biochemistry­ the study of chemical composition and reactions of all living matter; either  organic or inorganic:  Inorganic compounds­ Doesn’t contain carbon o Water o Salt o many acids and bases  Organic compounds­ Contains covalently bonded carbon (except CO , an2 CO) o Carbohydrates o Fats o Proteins  o Nucleic acids Water­ most abundant inorganic compound accounting for 60­80% of all living cells; Important  for its properties:  High heat capacity­ ability to absorb and release heat without changing temperature much  High heat of vaporization­ evaporation; useful cooling mechanism  Polar solvent properties­ dissolves ionic substances and forms water layers around  charged molecules (proteins) as a transport medium  Reactivity­ necessary for hydrolysis and dehydration synthesis reactions  Cushioning­ protects organs from physical trauma (cerebrospinal fluid cushions nerves) Salts­ ionic compounds that dissociated into separate cations and anions in water  All ions are electrolytes: can conduct electrical currents in a solution  Ions play specialized role in body functions (sodium, calcium, potassium, iron) Homeostatic Imbalances   Ionic balance is vital for homeostasis   If electrolyte balance is disrupted, all organ systems will no longer function Acids­ a substance that releases hydrogen ions in detectable amounts; proton donor > HCl (hydrochloric acid)  > HC H O2 (3c2tic acid, abbreviated HAc) > H CO  (carbonic acid) 2 3 Bases­ a substance that takes up hydrogen ions, releasing hydroxyl ion (OH ); proton acceptor  HCO  a3d NH 3 pH Scale­ measurement of concentration of hydrogen (H) in a solution  The more hydrogen, the more acidic +  pH is a negative logarithm of H  in moles per liter; ranges form 0­14  each pH unit represents a 10­fold difference (pH of 5 is 10X more acidic than pH of 6) + o Acidic­ more H  but lower pH 0­6.99 pH o Neutral­ equal number of H  and OH 7 pH ­ o Alkaline­ less H  but higher pH 7.01­14 pH Neutralization Reaction­ acids and bases mixed together   *NaOH + HCl  →  NaCl + H O 2 Buffers­ compensatory mechanism that stops abrupt changes in pH +  Releases hydrogen (H ) if pH gets too high  Binds hydrogen (H ) if pH falls too low  Converts strong acids/bases into weak acids/bases (carbonic acid­bicarbonate system)     (weak acid) H 2O   3                     H3O  (weak base) + H  (proton) Organic compounds­ contains carbon  Carbon in electroneutral and only shares electrons to form four (4) covalent bonds with  other elements  May organic compounds are polymers­ chains of their smaller units called monomers  They are synthesized by dehydrations synthesis and broken down by hydrolysis: o Dehydration synthesis­ take out water o Hydrolysis­ adding water Carbohydrates­ Sugars and starches  Contains carbon (C), oxygen (O), and hydrogen (H)  2:1 ratio of carbon and hydrogen  Three classifications of carbohydrates: o Monosaccharides­ one sugar (smallest unit) o Disaccharides­ two sugars o Polysaccharides­ three or more sugars; made up of monomers of monosaccharides Monosaccharides­ simple sugars with 3 seven­carbon atoms (monomers of carbohydrates) > Pentose sugars (Ribose and deoxyribose) > Hexose sugars (Glucose, fructose, galactose, ) Disaccharides­ double sugars too large to pass cell membrane  Important disaccharides: Sucrose, maltose, lactose  Formed by dehydration synthesis of two monosaccharides *glucose + fructose → sucrose + water Polysaccharides­ polymers of monosaccharide (dehydration synthesis); not very soluble > Starch­ stored carbohydrates used by plants > Glycogen­ stored carbohydrates used by animals Lipids­ fatty acids  Contain carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O); smaller amounts than carbohydrates  Insoluble in water > Triglycerides > Phospholipids  > Steroids > Eicosanoids Triglycerides  Fats when solid, oils when liquid   Three fatty acids bound to a glycerol  Functions in energy storage, protection and insulation  Saturated fatty acids all carbon linked by a single covalent bond resulting in more H;  solid in room temp  Unsaturated fatty acids one or more carbons linked by double bonds resulting in reduces H; liquid in room temp > Trans fats­ unhealthy modified oils > Omega­3 fatty acids­ hear healthy oils Phospholipids  Modified triglycerides (glycerol, two fatty acids, and a phosphorous group)  Hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tail important for cell structure Steroids  Four interlocking ring structures  Common steroids: cholesterol, steroid hormones, vitamin D, bile salt  Most important steroid is cholesterol for its properties of vitamin D, steroid, and bile salt  synthesis Eicosanoids  Derived from fatty acids and found in cell membranes   Prostaglandin plays important role in blood clotting, control of blood pressure,  inflammation, and labor contractions Proteins Proteins­ basic structural material of the body, making up 20­30% of cell’s mass  Structural, chemical (enzymes), and contraction (muscles) functions  Contain carbon (C), oxygen (O), hydrogen (H), and nitrogen (N), and some contain sulfur (S) and phosphorus (P).  Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins; proteins are long chains of amino acids  Amino acids held together by peptide bonds and contain amine and acid group (acts and  acid or base)  They differ there groups by a distinct R group  Four (4) structural levels of proteins: o Primary­ liner sequence of amino acids o Secondary­ alpha and beta helix resemble how amino acids interact with each  other o Tertiary­ how secondary structures interact o Quaternary­ how two (2) or more polypeptides interact  Protein shape and function divided  into two categories: Fibrous and glomerular proteins  Fibrous (structural) Proteins  Extended and sand like, water insoluble, and stable  Most tertiary or quaternary structure  Provide mechanical support and strength > Keratin > Elastin > Collagen > Some contractile fiber Globular (functional) proteins  compact, spherical, water soluble, and sensitive to environmental changes  tertiary or quaternary structure  chemically active in specific regions > antibodies > hormones > molecular chaperones (proteins that assist with covalent folding and unfolding) > enzymes Denaturation­ globular proteins unfolding and losing their shape  active sites become inactive  caused by decreased pH or increased temperature  reversible if normal conditions restored  irreversible if changers are extreme (can’t unboil and egg) Enzymes­ globular proteins that act as catalyst  catalyst regulates and accelerate the speed of chemical reactions without being used up  they lower the energy needed to initiate a chemical reaction, increasing the speed of the  reaction and allowing millions of reaction to occur  Holoenzymes­ most functional enzyme consisting of o Apoenzyme (protein portion) o Cofactor (metal ion) coenzyme (vitamin)  Enzymes act on specific substrates  Normally ends with –ase to indicate the reaction the catalyze (hydrolase, oxidase)  Enzymes lower activation energy (initiate reaction)  Three steps of enzyme action: o Substrate binds to enzyme’s active site, temporarily forming enzyme­substrate  complex o Complex undergoes rearrangement of substrate, resulting in final product o Product is released from enzyme Nucleic Acids­ largest molecules in the body  Composed of C, H, O N, and P  Nucleotides­ nucleic acid polymers are made up of monomers with nitrogen base, a  pentose sugar, and a phosphate group: > Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)  > Ribonucleic acid (RNA) Deoxyribonucleic Acids (DNA)  holds genetic blueprint for synthesis of all protein  double­helix molecule located in nucleus > Purines­ adenine (A) and guanine (G)  > Pyrimidines­ cytosine (C) and thymine (T) > complementary base­pairing: A­T and C­G Ribonucleic acid (RNA)  links DNA to protein synthesis  single stranded molecule outside of the nucleus  contains ribose sugar  Uracil replaces thymine > Messenger RNA (mRNA) > Transfer RNA (tRNA) > Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) ATP­ adenosine triphosphate  Chemical energy released when glucose is broken down is captured in ATP  directly powers chemical reactions in cells by offering immediate energy to cells  Terminal phosphate group of ATP transferred to other compounds to use energy stored in phosphate bond to do work o Loss of phosphate group converts ATP to ADP o Loss of second phosphate group converts ADP to AMP Ch. 2 Quiz Answers Which organic molecules form the major structural materials of the body?  Proteins Electrolytes are charged particles called ions that are dissolved in body fluids. Which of the following ions would be considered a major anion in the body?  Chloride Which four elements comprise approximately 96% of our body weight?  carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen What is the classification of a solution with a pH of 8.3?  alkaline solution Carbohydrates are stored in the liver and muscles in the form of?  Glycogen What helps to stabilize blood pH?  Buffers Nonpolar molecules are the result of what?  unequal electron pair sharing What is the primary energy-transferring molecule in cells?  ATP Which is a decomposition reaction?  MgO2 → Mg + O2 Which is a bond in which electrons are completely lost or gained by the atoms involved?  Ionic bond


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.