abnormal psych in class notes 09.06.16
abnormal psych in class notes 09.06.16 Psy 3315
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hayoung Lee on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psy 3315 at Texas State University taught by \ Etherton in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychology at Texas State University.
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Date Created: 09/06/16
Abnormal psych In class lecture notes Historical approaches to psychopathology Supernatural (take 1) o Pre-historical evidence of trephining Biological (take 1: Hippocrates and Galen) o Humors (fluids): Bile, Black Bile, Phlegm, Blood o Choleric: Irritable, short-tempered (bile) o Melancholic: Despondent, depressed (black bile) o Phlegmatic: Unemotional, calm, composed (phlegm) o Sanguine: Optimistic, confident, cheerful (blood) Supernatural (take 2: Dark Ages) o Accusations of witchcraft o Exorcism to drive out evil spirits Biological (take 2: syphilis!) o General Paresis: mental deterioration, disinhibition, mood changes, delusions o In the 1880s was linked to syphilis infection (10-30 years before symptoms) o Spirochetes Initial excitement about finding biological causes for all mental disorders faded – few additional successes Humanitarian Reform o With emergence of Renaissance, dignity of the individual was emphasized, and treatment of the mentally ill became more humane Classification o Emil Kraeplin (1883) classification of mental disorders o Pattern of co-occurrence of different symptoms o Suggests that course and cause of disorder could be understood Contemporary Approaches Psychological o 1. Psychoanalysis (late 1800s – mid 1900s) Charcot, Freud, Breuer Id, ego, superego Emphasis on the unconscious and dynamics within it Free Association Dream Interpretation Steam engine metaphor o 2. Behavioral approach Ivan Pavlov – Classical conditioning John Watson – application to acquired fears B.F. Skinner – Operant conditioning Psychopathology as learned behaviors Abnormal psych In class lecture notes Emphasis on the role of experience and environment in shaping behavior (external rather than internal) Classical conditioning Pavlov’s dog example Behaviorism John Watson promotes behaviorism as a means of creating desired behaviors and reducing undesired (including psychopathology) Operant conditioning BF Skinner Positive/Negative Reinforcement Positive/Negative Punishment Etiology: causal factors in a psychological disorder o Necessary cause Must be present for disorder to occur, but presence does not guarantee disorder will occur Ex. Huntington’s chorea gene o Sufficient cause Disorder will occur if this cause is present Ex. If hopelessness is present depression will occur (according to one theory) o Contributory cause Increases probability of disorder occurring Not necessary or sufficient Most psychological research Diathesis: Relatively Stress: Response distal necessary or to individual to contributory cause taxing demands that is not sufficient Diathesis – stress models: Combination Theoretical of diathesis and stress Perspectives Neurobiological to cause disorder o Genetic o Brain structure and function Behavioral o Classical conditioning o Operant conditioning Abnormal psych In class lecture notes o Observational learning Cognitive
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