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Personal Health, Chapter 1 Notes

by: Sydney Corey

Personal Health, Chapter 1 Notes PHS 1514

Sydney Corey
Virginia Tech

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Block 1: Chapter 1 Notes for Personal Health Online
Personal Health
Amy Smith
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sydney Corey on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHS 1514 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Amy Smith in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Personal Health in Population Health Sciences at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.

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Date Created: 09/07/16
CHAPTER 1: Foundations of Personal Health Modern Concept of Health • Health- a dynamic human condition with multiple but intertwined dimensions - physical, emotional, social, intellectual, spiritual, and environmental • Positive Health is associated with a capacity to enjoy life and to withstand challenges • Negative Health is associated with illness and disease and in extreme, with premature death • Quality of Life - a subjective rating of the difference between our hopes and expectations and our present experience o Quality of life refers to our overall sense of well being • Humans are goal-oriented creatures: we like to set goals and then work to achieve them • The Health Continuum Dimensions of Health • 6 Dimensions: o Physical • Encompasses the functional operation and soundness of the body o Emotional • Associated with the ability to deal with personal feelings in a positive and constructive manner to cope with stress a nd to live independently o Social • The ability to interact effectively with other people o Intellectual • Reflected in our ability to questions and evaluate information, to think and learn from a variety of experiences, and to be open to new ideas o Spiritual • A commitment to a set of values or principles that guide our actions o Environmental • Focuses on the state of the environment and the conditions in which we live • The dimensions of health do not exist as separate elements, rather each dimension related to a ll others Diversity and Health • The diversity of the American population is an asset • A primary goal of public health is to reduce health disparities through research, education, and improved access to health care • The concept of health is much more than s imply not being sick. Health is multidimensional and dynamic, and influences by social and cultural norms. Our overall health status and the associated quality of life are largely determined by our lifestyle choices and behaviors Health Literacy Health Literacy- the degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, • process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions Created in 1995, Health on the Net Foundation reviews and certifies websites to • protect consumers from misleading health information The HONcode icon on the opening page of a website is granted based on these • principles: o Authoritative- any medical or health advice provided or hosted on the site comes from medially trained and qualif ied professionals o Complementary- info provided supports, but does not replace the doctor-patient relationship o Privacy- data regarding individual patients or visitors to the health -related website remain confidential o Attribution- when appropriate, the si te contains clear references to source data and when necessary, specific HTML links to that data o Justifiability- any claims related to benefits or performance of a specific treatment, product, or service are supported by appropriately balances evidence in the manner outlines in principle 4 o Transparency- the site designers seek to provide information in the clearest possible manner and provide contact addresses for visitors who seek further information or support o Financial Disclosure - the site identifies its funding sources clearly o Advertising Policy - the site clearly distinguishes editorial content from advertising • Health literacy is the knowledge and skills that enable us to successfully access, analyze, and interpret relevant infor mation, answer personal health questions, to provide guidance in dealing with a health condition, and to change a health behavior. Key aspects of health literacy include: self-directed learning, effective communication, and critical thinking. Health literacy also assumes a mindfulness and inquisitiveness that motivates continual learning Concept of Risk • Health Risk or Risk Factor - any factor that increases susceptibility or has a strong association with the occurrence, onset, or progression of a disease or injury • Epidemiology- the study of the causes, distribution, and control of diseases in populations • Relative Risk- measure of the comparative risk of a health -related event such as disease or death between two groups. It is the chance that a per sonal receiving an exposure will develop a condition compared to the chance that a non -exposed person will develop the same condition • Health risk is the concept that related specific health -comprising factors (exposures) to increased likelihood of develop ing diseases or higher death rates (outcomes). Conversely, from a proactive viewpoint, adopting health enhancing or health-proactive behaviors can reduce the probability of unwanted outcomes. Epidemiologists study the disease process in populations and qua ntify health risks in terms of absolute risk and relative risk Advances in Public Health • Infectious Diseases- a medical condition typically resulting from a disease - causing organism. Usually a bacterium or virus, or parasitic worn. Most infectious diseases are short term or highly treatable illnesses such as the common cold and strep throat • Chronic Diseases - medical conditions that are prolonged, do not resolve spontaneously, and are rarely cured completely • Chromic Lower Respiratory Disease - a progressive disease that makes it hard to breathe, also known as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease • Today the major causes of death are chronic diseases, not infectious diseases. Chronic diseases such as heart disease, cancer, and diabetes are strongly tied to how we chose to live, to our daily habits Understanding Health Behaviors • Knowledge by itself does not ensure good decision making • Attitudes, beliefs, and values are shaped by our environment • Health Behavior Theory - a conceptual framework of key factors or variables hypothesized to influence health behavior. An established theory is logical, supported by evidence and underpins behavior change plans and strategies • Albert Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory is based on the principle that behavior is dynamic, depending on individual and environmental factors, all of which influence each other simultaneously • Health Belief Model o Irwin Rosenstock o One of the first theories of health behavior was developed in the 1950's to explain why so few people participated in the national chest X-Ray screening for tuberculosis • Stages of Change Model o James Proehaska and Carlo Diclemente o Behavior change is a process not an event o 5 Stages to change: • Pre-contemplation • Contemplation • Preparation • Action • Maintenance


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