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Animal Breeding and Genetics

by: Meagan Samele

Animal Breeding and Genetics APSC 1454

Meagan Samele
Virginia Tech

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About this Document

These notes cover the lecture regarding animal breeding and genetics. Can be found in chapter 8 of the book.
Intro to Animal and Poultry Science
Dr. Wood
Class Notes
Animal Science, Animal Breeding, Genetics
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meagan Samele on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to APSC 1454 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Dr. Wood in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.

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Date Created: 09/07/16
Animal Breeding and Genetics  Chapter 8      ● Genetics works  ○ Studies show that genetics can be charted to help solve issues   ■ Ex: Amount of milk a cow produces  ● Animal Breeding Assumptions  ○ Inheritance  ■ The algebra of the half  ■ Resemblance among relatives  ○ Principle of Segregation  ■ One allele per gamete  ○ Principle of Independent Assortment  ■ Separation of one pair of alleles is independent of all other pairs  ● The Algebra of the half, and resemblance among relatives  ○ Fertilization results in a zygote that contains a full complement of DNA  ○ Gametogenesis  ■ Meiosis results in ½ the DNA   ● Definitions:  ○ Allele­a particular form of a gene  ○ Locus­ The physical location of a gene  ○ Chromosome­ DNA that contains loci  ○ Genotype: All the genes possessed by an animal  ○ Phenotype­ Expression of the gene (physical)  ● Sex Chromosomes:  ○ Autosomes: non­sex chromosomes   ○ Mammals  ■ XX­homogametic (female)  ■ XY­heterogametic (male)  ○ Birds  ■ ZZ­Male  ■ ZW­Female   ○ Traits  ■ Sex­limited (autosomal)­limited because of hormone development  ● Ex: Lactation­only females  ■ Sex­linked (sex chromosome)  ● Feathering Rate  ■ Sex­influenced (autosomal)  ● Horn size (males are bigger)  ● Gene Expression­One Locus  ○ Dominance: denoted with capital letters  ○ Recessive:Use lower case letters  ○ Codominant (lack of dominance): both alleles expressed in phenotype  ○ Incomplete Dominance: heterozygote is intermediate  ○ Overdominance: Heterozygote is preferred to either homozygote  ○ NOTE: May involve multiple (n>alleles)  ● Gene Combinations  ○ 6 possible mating types per pair of alleles  ■ AAxAA  ■ AAxAa  ■ AAxaa  ■ AaxAa  ■ Aaxaa  ■ Aaxaa    Possible results of AaxAa  A  a  A  AA  Aa  a  Aa  aa  AaxAa ¼ AA ½ Aa ¼ aa    ● Allelic Gene Actions (Interactions)  ○ C­rate of gain=0.1 lbs/day  ○ c­ rate of gain= 0.05 lbs/day  ■ Lack of Dominance=Additive Gene Action (add together)’  ● Overdominance=Heterosis  ○ Heterozygous is better than average of either parents   ○ Useful heterosis  ● Epistatic Gene Actions  ○ Epistasis=interaction of non­allelic genes  ○ Locus #1­coat color gene locus:Black (B)/Chocolate (b)  ○ Locus #2: expression gene locus : E=yes, e=no   ○ Labrador Retrievers:    Locus #1  Locus #2  Phenotype  B_  E_  Black  bb  E_  Chocolate  __  ee  Yellow    ● Qualitative Traits Controlled by one or a few genes  ○ Coat color in Angus Cattle­complete dominance  ○ Gene:  ■ B­black  ■ b­red    Genotypes  Phenotyoes  BB  Black  Bb  Black  bb  Red    ● Polledness in Cattle­complete dominance  ○ P­polled  ○ p­horned    Genotypes  Phenotype  PP  Polled  Pp  Polled  pp  Horned      ● Mating of heterozygous black. Heterozygous polled parents  ○ Possible gametes: BP, Bp, bP, bp      Genotypes  Phenotypes  1 BBPP, 2BBPp, 2BbPP, 4 BbPp  9 Black & polled  1 BBpp, 2Bbpp  3 Black and Horned  1 bbPP, 2 bbPp      ● Mating BbPP x BBPp (practice)      Genotypes   Phenotypes        


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