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Chapter 1 Psychology notes

by: Kailey Mathews

Chapter 1 Psychology notes Psyc 2301

Kailey Mathews
GPA 4.0
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About this Document

Notes cover materials covered in each class session
W staff
Class Notes




Popular in Psychology

Popular in Psychology (PSYC)

This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kailey Mathews on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 2301 at West Texas A&M University taught by W staff in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 84 views. For similar materials see Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at West Texas A&M University.

Similar to Psyc 2301 at WTAMU

Popular in Psychology (PSYC)


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Date Created: 09/07/16
Chapter 1 Psychology- the scientific study of behavior, mental processes, and the brain. 1.1 Why is Psychology Important to you?  Psychology Explains Our Mental Activity & Behavior, which are based on brain processes.  PSYC teaches Critical Thinking Three key questions involved? (don’t jump to conclusions and fallow the persuasion of the author) 1. What am I being asked to believe or accept? (what are my assumptions) 2. What evidence is provided to support the claim? 3. What are the most reasonable conclusions?  PSYC Helps Us Succeed in School & at Work 1. Academic success Improve studying 2. Professional success If you understand better about human behavior & mental processes, then you have a better chance of adapting to working with others. May understand people and behaviors better that allows you to get along with others in the work place. 1.2 What do Psychologists Investigate?  Psychology (like all the sciences) originated with philosophical questions & proposed answers. o One example cited in text is Rene Descartes (geometry) who proposed the mind & body are separate but interaction. Common worldwide view.  Invented coordinates– latitude and longitude (fly) o Most psychologists that deal with this issue reject this idea, called dualism. Instead, they view the mind as a product of brain processes.  Mind directs body but body also influences the mind (all science start out a psychology, questioning and philosophy… when the experiments and collecting evidence happens, then it is considered science.) (could not understand hearing without understanding the psychological effects aka behaviors and mental functions related to hearing) Psychologists started examining the mind by investigation the “mind” with conscious & unconscious components.  Formal beginning, 1879 in Wundt’s laboratory in Germany o Experimental psychology began with various ways to measure the “inferred” working of the mind. (measuring how much time it takes to hit a green button, concussion test) (decision to push button and execution)  Led to Titchener’s Structuralism. Limited his success because he tried to study the mind first before knowing anything about it. Structuralism- looking for the structure of thought =Periodic table … how thoughts interact with one another… o One of these early methods was “introspection” (which was supposed to measure the conscious mind). *The mind is inferred* - thinking comes from the mind 1.3 notes were not discussed at any point in class, but will be on study guide at a later date 1.4 How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?  Psychologists cannot answer questions based on beliefs, Scientific Method 1. Theory: A model of interconnected ideas or concepts that explains what is observed and makes predictions about future events (readily avalible to be revised) 2. Hypothesis: A specific prediction of what should be observed if a theory is correct (test to prove or disprove) 1,3,5,7…9…11…13 * more important to disprove than to improve* (conformation or dis-conformation) 3. Testing the Hypothesis: Three main types of research methods to test your research question: descriptive, correlational, and experimental 4. Analyze: anilize the data to see whether your hypothesis is supported: Summarize the raw data using descriptive statistics, then use inferential statistics to determine whether differences really exist (statistical differences.. more than just chance) 5. Report results and embark on further inquiries Hawthoren Effect- people know they are being observed Acclimation- people get used to it Blind Study –no prior knowledge Operational definition –define something by how you are going to measure it Self-Reports  Subjective… how do you feel (detail)  Objective… number of times you eat (scientific work) Case Study- Observation over long period time  Cause and Effect… descriptive study will never resolve cause and effect Correlation NOT CAUSE AND EFFECT Positive –change in the same direction (number of house studied per week higher the grade average) Negative – opposite direction (number of alcohol beverages before exam) Spurious -just by chance (relationship and third variable things) (ice cream isn’t causing people to drown) REPRESENTATIVE-make sure that the sample you get represents the population you want to study SAMPLE OF CONVENIENCE- surveying a group of people that all go to the HELC center (women live longer than men)- could be other factors involved… seeing doctors less, environmental manipulation and random assignments*


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