Human Anatomy Notes: August 30: Dr. Lorenz
Human Anatomy Notes: August 30: Dr. Lorenz BIOL 2030
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gabrielle Griffin on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2030 at Georgia Southwestern State University taught by Dr. Lorenz in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy I in Science at Georgia Southwestern State University.
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Date Created: 09/07/16
Dr. Lorenz Human Anatomy I TR 12:30-1:45 August 30 CHAPTER 3: Cellular Form and Function Intro 1. All organisms are composed of cells a. Single cells humans 2. Cells are responsible for all structural and functional properties of a living organism a. Workings of the human body b. Mechanisms of disease c. Rationale of therapy Outcomes 1. Cell theories 2. Cell shapes 3. Size range 4. Developments in microscopy changed views of cell structure 5. Major components of a cell a. Cell membrane Development of the cell theory 1. Cytology a. Robert hooke: Cells describe empty cell walls of cork 2. Schwann: animal tissue is made of cells 3. Louis Pasteur “Cells arise from other cells” a. Refutes spontaneous generation- living things arise from nonliving matter b. Led to antibiotics, food lasting longer, 4. Modern Cell Theory a. All organizms are made of cells and cell products b. The cell is the simplist structural and function unit of life c. An organism structure and function are due to the activates in the cells d. Cells come only from preexisting cells, not from nonliving matter e. Cells of all species have many fundamental similarities in their chemical composition and metabolic mechanisms Cell Shapes and Sizes 1. Cell shapes a. Squamous: thin flat (lining) b. Cuboidal: cubes(tubes) c. Columnar (lungs intestines) d. Polygonal (deep tissues, ovaries) e. Stellate (neurons) f. Spheroid (white blood cells, independent cells) g. Discoid (red blood cells, no nucleus) h. Fusiform spindle shaped (smooth muscle) i. Fibrous (skeletal muscle) 2. Human cell size a. Most 10-15 micrometes diameter i. Egg cells 100 micr met diameter 1. Barely 3. Limitations in size a. Cell growth increases volume more than surface area i. Cell membrane is lipid bilayer: too thin will pop ii. Bigger = more space, functional b. Surface area of a cell is proportional to the square of its diameter c. Volume of a cell is proportional to the cube of its diameter i. Nutrient absorption and waste removal d. Basic components of a cell 1. Light microscope reveals plasma membrane, nucleus, and cytoplasm a. Cytoplasm- fluid between the nucleus and surface membrane 2. Resolutions (ability to reveal detail) of electron microscopes reveals ultrastructure a. Organelles vytoskeleton, and vytosol (ICF-intra cellular fluid) 3. Magnification of x750 seen through both light and transmission electron microscopes 4. Increased resolution 5. Plasma membrane a. Surrounds cell b. Made of proteins and libids c. Controls in and out 6. Cytoplasm a. Organelles b. Cytoskeleton c. Cytosol 7. Extracellular fluid a. Fluid outside of cell Learning outcomes 1. Cell membrane 2. Lipids proteins 3. Secondary messeger system 4. Comp and fuct of glycocalyz t 5. Microvilli, cilia, flagella The plasma Membrane 1. Plasma membrane- unit membrane at cell surface a. Defines boundaries b. Governs interactions with other cells c. Control passage of materials in andout of cell d. INTRACELLULAR FACE – faces cytoplasm e. EXTRACELLULAR FACE- faces outwars f. Oily film of lipids with diverse proteins embedded 2. Membrane lipids a. 98% of molecules are lipids 3. PHosphoplipids a. Hydrophilic head b. Hydrophobic tail 4. Cholesterol a. 20% of membrane lipids b. holds phospholipids still and stiffen membrane 5. Gylcolipids a. 5% of membrane lipids b. phospholipids with short car chain on extra cell face c. glycocalyx coating on cell surface d. receptor cell 6. membrane proteins a. 2% molecules b. 50% weight 7. Transmembrane poteins a. Pass through membrane b. hydrophilic regions and extracellular c. hydrophobic regions through lipid membrane d. Most glycoproteins e. Can drift freely in phospholipid film f. Anchored to cytoskeleton 8. Peripheral proteins a. Adhere to one face of membrane b. Usually tethered to cytoskeleton Membrane Proteins ***** 1. Receptors 2. Enzymes a. Regulate hormones, create 2ndary messengers 3. Channels a. Ion channel i. Eg NA K pump b. Gated ion channel 4. Cell identity marker 5. Cell adhesion molecule (CAM) a. Bind to other cams Receptors 1. Cell communication via chemical signals a. Receptors- surface proteins on plasma membrane of target cell i. Change shape of protein and affects stuff inside cell b. Bind these chemicals (hormones, neurotransmitters) c. Receptor usually specific for one substrate Second messenger systems 2. Messengers bind to surface receptor 3. Triggers changes within the cell that produce a second Enzymes 1. Enzymes in plasma membrane carry out final stages of starch and protein digestion in small intestine 2. Help produce cAMP 3. Break down chemical mess and hormones whos job is done a. Stops excessive stimulation Channel Proteins 1. Transmembrane with pores a. Constantly opens b. Or gated channels respond to stimuli i. Ligand (chemically) regulated ii. Voltage iii. Mechanically regulated 2. Play an important role in timing of nerve signals and muscle contractions 3. Disease Carrier pumps 1. Transmembrane proteins bind to glucose, electrolytes, solutes a. Transfer across membrane Cell Identity markers 2. Glycoproteins contribute glycocalyx a. Carbohydrate surface coating b. Acts like cell’s “ID TAG” 3. Enables bodies to identify which cells belong and don’t CAM 1. Adhere cells to each other and extracellular material 2. Cells do not grow or survive normally unless they are mechanically linked to the extracellular material a. Special events: sperm egg binding; binding of immune cell to a cancer cell
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