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Anatomy and Physiology Lecture Notes Chapter 1

by: Noah Chapman

Anatomy and Physiology Lecture Notes Chapter 1 BIOL 1551 - 01

Marketplace > Youngstown State University > Biology > BIOL 1551 - 01 > Anatomy and Physiology Lecture Notes Chapter 1
Noah Chapman
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These notes cover Chapter 1 that we went over in class on Friday August 26, 2016 - Monday August 29, 2016.
Anatomy and Physiology 1
Deborah F Benyo
Class Notes
Introduction, Anatomy& Physiology
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Noah Chapman on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1551 - 01 at Youngstown State University taught by Deborah F Benyo in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 93 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology 1 in Biology at Youngstown State University.

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Date Created: 09/07/16
Anatomy and Physiology Lecture  8/26/16 Chapter 1 Notes I. Anatomy: study of structure & relationship of structures  II. Physiology: study of the Function of the body’s structures  Hierarchy of Complexity   Chemical: Atoms & Molecules  Cell: Smallest unit of organism to carry basic functions of life  Composed of organelles (small little organs in the cell: ex; mitochondria)   Tissue­ cells of one type together   4 basic types: (Muscle, Epithelial, Connective, Nervous)   Organ: a structure where 2+ tissues work together for a specific function (stomach is an  organ)  System: 2+ functionally­related organs work together   11 organ systems in boy (Digestive System, Muscular System,  Integumentary System, Skeletal System, Nervous System, Endocrine  System, Circulatory System, Lymphatic System, Respiratory System,  Urinary System, and Reproductive System)  Organism: living individual  Characteristics of Life  Organization: living things expend energy to maintain order (structure) & living matter is compartmentalized into Cells  Energy comes from chemical reactions of metabolism   Metabolism: chemical reactions within the body to take molecules from environment and  change them for use in the body   Anabolism: Building molecules from smaller subunits (anabolic steroids = related) (Anabolic steroids build proteins that make up muscle) (Proteins  are made from Amino Acids)  Catabolism: Breaking down macromolecules into smaller subunits (Body  gets amino acids from protein shake – consume from the environment)   Responsiveness: ability to detect (nervous system) & respond to stimuli (movement)  Development: change in form or function over time   Growth: increase in cell number (Hyperplasia increase in cell size)  (Hypertrophy – individual cell growth) (atrophy: decreases in size)  Differentiation: transformation of cells leading to a specialized function  cannot change that function once differentiated (embryo)  Reproduction: production of new cells or individuals (related to development growth)  Stem Cells: Cells that undergo constant division (constantly dividing)  (DIAGRAM HANDOUT CHAPTER 1) o (Embryonic or Adult) (Every cell in body comes from single cell =  fertilized egg) (about First 7 days = embryo & cells differentiate – cells  that form body organs) (Adult Stem Cells found in Bone Marrow (blood  cells) – necessary to form hundreds of millions blood cells (white or red  blood cells) & Skin & some in liver, teeth (few in heart, muscles?) (DIAGRAM HANDOUT CHAPTER 1) Self­ Renewal = by Constant Cell Division into identical cells (Process called Mitosis leads to  hyperplasia) Chemical signals that trigger a cell to have a specialized function  Homeostasis: Maintenance of a stable internal environment   The body’s ability to detect change – Activate mechanisms to maintain relatively  constant conditions = Dynamic Equilibrium around a Set Point (normal value)  Components to Maintain Homeostasis   Stimulus: disrupts of a Variable (ex: temp.)  Receptor: structure that senses the change in condition and signals   Integrating (Control) Center: processes information and signals  o The brain acts as a integrating center, endocrine system & nervous system  is also an integrating center.  Effector: structure that carries out corrective action (could increase sweat glands – body temperature rises)  Homeostasis Controlled by Feedback Mechanisms:  Negative Feedback – Effector response reverses the original stimulus to get back  to Set­point (most common); Loop brings back to normal (ex: insulin helps  regulate blood sugar – disrupts homeostasis)    Positive Feedback – Effector response enhances the original stimulus or brings  about further change to regulate. (ex: giving birth)  Inability to maintain Homeostasis – Pathophysiology (Disease conditions/Death) 


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