Anatomy and Physiology Lecture Notes Chapter 1
Anatomy and Physiology Lecture Notes Chapter 1 BIOL 1551 - 01
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Noah Chapman on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1551 - 01 at Youngstown State University taught by Deborah F Benyo in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 93 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology 1 in Biology at Youngstown State University.
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Date Created: 09/07/16
Anatomy and Physiology Lecture 8/26/16 Chapter 1 Notes I. Anatomy: study of structure & relationship of structures II. Physiology: study of the Function of the body’s structures Hierarchy of Complexity Chemical: Atoms & Molecules Cell: Smallest unit of organism to carry basic functions of life Composed of organelles (small little organs in the cell: ex; mitochondria) Tissue cells of one type together 4 basic types: (Muscle, Epithelial, Connective, Nervous) Organ: a structure where 2+ tissues work together for a specific function (stomach is an organ) System: 2+ functionallyrelated organs work together 11 organ systems in boy (Digestive System, Muscular System, Integumentary System, Skeletal System, Nervous System, Endocrine System, Circulatory System, Lymphatic System, Respiratory System, Urinary System, and Reproductive System) Organism: living individual Characteristics of Life Organization: living things expend energy to maintain order (structure) & living matter is compartmentalized into Cells Energy comes from chemical reactions of metabolism Metabolism: chemical reactions within the body to take molecules from environment and change them for use in the body Anabolism: Building molecules from smaller subunits (anabolic steroids = related) (Anabolic steroids build proteins that make up muscle) (Proteins are made from Amino Acids) Catabolism: Breaking down macromolecules into smaller subunits (Body gets amino acids from protein shake – consume from the environment) Responsiveness: ability to detect (nervous system) & respond to stimuli (movement) Development: change in form or function over time Growth: increase in cell number (Hyperplasia increase in cell size) (Hypertrophy – individual cell growth) (atrophy: decreases in size) Differentiation: transformation of cells leading to a specialized function cannot change that function once differentiated (embryo) Reproduction: production of new cells or individuals (related to development growth) Stem Cells: Cells that undergo constant division (constantly dividing) (DIAGRAM HANDOUT CHAPTER 1) o (Embryonic or Adult) (Every cell in body comes from single cell = fertilized egg) (about First 7 days = embryo & cells differentiate – cells that form body organs) (Adult Stem Cells found in Bone Marrow (blood cells) – necessary to form hundreds of millions blood cells (white or red blood cells) & Skin & some in liver, teeth (few in heart, muscles?) (DIAGRAM HANDOUT CHAPTER 1) Self Renewal = by Constant Cell Division into identical cells (Process called Mitosis leads to hyperplasia) Chemical signals that trigger a cell to have a specialized function Homeostasis: Maintenance of a stable internal environment The body’s ability to detect change – Activate mechanisms to maintain relatively constant conditions = Dynamic Equilibrium around a Set Point (normal value) Components to Maintain Homeostasis Stimulus: disrupts of a Variable (ex: temp.) Receptor: structure that senses the change in condition and signals Integrating (Control) Center: processes information and signals o The brain acts as a integrating center, endocrine system & nervous system is also an integrating center. Effector: structure that carries out corrective action (could increase sweat glands – body temperature rises) Homeostasis Controlled by Feedback Mechanisms: Negative Feedback – Effector response reverses the original stimulus to get back to Setpoint (most common); Loop brings back to normal (ex: insulin helps regulate blood sugar – disrupts homeostasis) Positive Feedback – Effector response enhances the original stimulus or brings about further change to regulate. (ex: giving birth) Inability to maintain Homeostasis – Pathophysiology (Disease conditions/Death)
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