Vocabulary for test one
Vocabulary for test one 1013
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jesse Watkins on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1013 at Mississippi State University taught by Rebecca Armstrong in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 174 views.
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Date Created: 09/07/16
Structuralism: Early school of thought promoted by Wundt and Titchener; used introspection to reveal the structure of the human mind. Functionalism: Early school of thought promoted by James and influenced by Darwin; explored how mental and behavioral processes function-how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish Behaviorism: the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Humanistic psychology: Historically significant perspective that emphasized human growth potential. Cognitive neuroscience: The interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language) Psychology: The science of behavior and mental processes. Nature-nurture issue: the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to development of psychological traits and behaviors. Today’s science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture. Natural selection: The principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations. Evolutionary Psychology: The study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection. Behavior Genetics: The study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior. Culture: The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next. Positive Psychology: The scientific study of human functioning, with the goals of discovering and promoting strengths and virtues that help individuals and communities to thrive. Levels of analysis: The differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon. Biopsychosocial approach: An integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social cultural levels of analysis. Basic Research: pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base. Applied research: scientific study that aims to solve practical problems Counseling psychology: a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well- being. Clinical psychology: A branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders. Psychiatry: a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders: practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical treatments as well as psychological therapy. Community psychology: a branch of psychology that studies how people interact with their social environments and how social institutions affect individuals and groups. Testing effect: Enhanced memory after retrieving, rather than simply rereading information. Also sometimes referred to as a retrieval practice effect or test enhanced learning. SQ3R: a study method incorporating five steps: Survey, Question, Read, Retrieve, Review. Intuition: An effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought, as contrasted with explicit, conscious reasoning. Hindsight Bias: The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it. Critical thinking: thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, appraises the source, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions. Theory an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events. Hypothesis a testable prediction, often implied by a theory. Operational definition a carefully worded statement of the exact procedures (operations) used in research study. Replication repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances. Case study a descriptive technique in which one individual or group is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles. Naturalistic observation a descriptive technique of observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation. Survey a descriptive technique for obtaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group. Population all those in a group being studied. Random Sample a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion. Correlation a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other. Correlation Coefficient a statistical index of the relationship between two things (from -1.00 to +1.00) Scatterplot a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation. Regression toward the mean the tendency for extreme or unusual scores or events to fall back toward the average. Experiment a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (dependent variables). Experimental group in an experiment, the group exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable. Control group in an experiment, the group NOT exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment. Random assignment assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between the different groups. Double-blind procedure an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo. Placebo effect experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent. Independent variable is an experiment, the factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied. Confounding variable in an experiment, a factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect. Dependent variable in an experiment, the outcome that is measured; the variable that may change when the independent variable is manipulated. Informed consent giving potential participants enough information about a study to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate Debriefing The postexperimental explanation of a study, including its purpose and any deceptions, to its participants. Mode the most frequently occurring scores Mean the average of the scores. Median the middle scores of the distribution. Range the difference between the highest and lowest scores Standard deviation a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score Normal curve a symmetrical, bell-shaped curve, that describes the distribution of many types of data; most scores fall near the mean. Statistical significance a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance. Biological perspective concerned with the links between biology and behavior. Includes psychologists working in neuroscience, behavior, genetics, and evolutionary psychology. Neuron a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system. Dendrites a neuron’s bushy, branching extensions that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body Axon the neuron extension that passes messages through its branches to other neurons or to muscles or glands Myelin Sheath a fatty tissue layer segmentally encasing the axons of some neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed as neural impulses hop from one node to the next. Glial Cells (glia) cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons; they may also play a role in learning, thinking, and memory. Action potential a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon Refractory period a period of inactivity after a neuron has fired Threshold the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse. All-or-none response a neuron’s reaction of either firing (with a full strength response) or not at all. Synapse the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron. (The tiny gap at this junction is called the synaptic gap.) Neurotransmitters chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons. Reuptake a neurotransmitter’s reabsorption by the sending neuron. Endorphins natural, opiate-like neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure. Agonist a molecule that increases a neurotransmitter’s action Antagonist a molecule that inhibits or blocks a neurotransmitter’s action Nervous System the body’s speedy electrochemical communication network. Consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems. Central Nervous System the brain and spinal cord Peripheral nervous system the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body Nerves bundled axons that form neural cables connecting the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs Sensory (afferent) neurons neurons that carry incoming information from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord. Motor (efferent) neurons neurons that carry outgoing information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands. Interneurons neurons within the brain and spinal cord; communicate internally and process information between the sensory inputs and motor outputs. Somatic nervous system the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body’s skeletal muscles. Also called the skeletal nervous system. Autonomic nervous system the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs. Sympathetic and parasympathetic. Sympathetic nervous system the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body. Mobilizing its energy. Parasympathetic nervous system the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body. Conserving its energy. Reflex a simple, automatic response to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee-jerk responses. Endocrine system the body’s “slow” chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream. Hormones chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands, travel through the bloodstream, and affect other tissues. Adrenal Glands a pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones (epinephrine or norepinephrine) that help arouse the body in times of stress. Pituitary gland the endocrine system’s most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands. Lesion tissue destruction. A brain lesion is a naturally or experimentally caused destruction of brain tissue. Electroencephalogram (EEG) an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity sweeping across the brain’s surface. These waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp. PET (Positron emission tomography) scan a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task. MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images of soft tissue. MRI scans show brain anatomy. fMRI (functional MRI) a technique for revealing bloodflow and, therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans. fMRI scans show brain function as well as structure. Brainstem the oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; the brainstem is responsible for automatic survival functions. Medulla the base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing. Thalamus the brain’s sensor control center, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla. Reticular formation a nerve network that travels through the brainstem into the thalamus and plays an important role in controlling arousal. Cerebellum the “little brain” at the rear of the brainstem; functions include processing sensory input, coordinating movement output and balance, and enabling nonverbal learning and memory. Limbic system neural system (hippocampus, amygdala, hypothalamus) located below the cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions and drives Hippocampus a neural center located in the limbic system; helps process explicit memories for storage. Amygdala two lima-bean-sized neural clusters in the limbic system; linked to emotion Hypothalamus a neural structure lying below the thalamus; it directs several maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temperature), helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion and reward. Frontal lobes portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead; involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments. Cerebral cortex the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres; the body’s ultimate control and information-processing center. Parietal lobes portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; receives sensory input for touch and body position. Occipital lobes portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head; includes areas that receive information from the visual fields. Temporal lobes portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; includes the auditory areas, each receiving information primarily from the opposite ear. Motor complex an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements Somatosensory cortex area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations. Association areas areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather, they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking. Plasticity the brain’s ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience. Neurogenesis the formation of new neurons Corpus Callosum the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them. Split Brain a condition resulting from surgery that isolates the brain’s two hemispheres by cutting the fibers connecting them.
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