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POLS 625 Week 2 Notes- Lecture 3 & 4

by: Rebecca Munson

POLS 625 Week 2 Notes- Lecture 3 & 4 POLS 625

Marketplace > Kansas > Political Science > POLS 625 > POLS 625 Week 2 Notes Lecture 3 4
Rebecca Munson
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These notes cover the different approaches/theories of policy including examples, definitions and graphs from our two lectures of week 2
Extremist Groups and Government Response
Donald Haider-Markel
Class Notes
Policy, Politics, Theory
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rebecca Munson on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POLS 625 at Kansas taught by Donald Haider-Markel in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Extremist Groups and Government Response in Political Science at Kansas.

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Date Created: 09/07/16
POLS 625 Week 2 Notes- Lecture 3 & 4; By Rebecca Munson KEY: Definitions; Important Terms; Ideas that were emphasized in lecture I Extremism/Terrorism & Public Policy  Labeling is political (eg. Extremist/insurgent/terrorist)  Definitions of extremism/terrorism are often inconsistently used  Government response: often reactionary & an over reaction  This is what the terrorists want II Government Focus-What is Public Policy?  Public Policy: Any government action that attempts to solve some perceived public problem  Elements of Public Policy  Distinction between what government intend to do & what they actually do  Policy can be intent only  Policy can involve all levels of government  It is pervasive and not limited to legislation  Language of Public Policy  Power: The ability of ‘A’ to get ‘B’ to do something she would not normally do.  Authority: The power to enforce laws, command, determine or judge.  Legitimacy: An attribute of government gained through the acquisition and application of power in accordance with accepted standards.  Pluralism: Is this country for groups of people? Where groups hold almost equal power. “Today’s winners are tomorrow’s losers”  Elitism: Is this country for one particular group? A few elite groups control the agenda and the policy.  Efficiency & Effectiveness: We want the government to be efficient and effective but also fair.  Market failures can invoke government action  Public good: No one can exclude you from using it (air, land)  Private good: People can be excluded from obtaining it (DVD’s) rd  Negative Externality: a negative cost to a 3 part that wasn’t part of the transaction that is negatively affecting them (electricity = pollution, who gets affected by the pollution?)  Information asymmetries: safety & knowledge (think drugs and the FDA)  Monopolies: A business can set prices because they control the market.  Many of these definitions & MORE can be found in the flash cards that I made on StudyStack III Issues and Definitions; Public Policy & The Policy Process  Government actions include:  The Instruments of public policy  Law  Services  Money  Taxes POLS 625 Week 2 Notes- Lecture 3 & 4; By Rebecca Munson  Other Economic Instruments  Moral Persuasion  How does this process work? Theories:  Most policy theories seek to explain policy formulation and adoption  We focus mainly on policy adoption, but also policy impacts  Parts of the process:  Political Culture  Socioeconomic conditions and events  Official actors  Executives/legislatures/bureaucracy/the courts  Unofficial actors  Political parties/think tanks/interest groups  Problem definition and getting on the agenda  Policy problem: conditions exist; is it a problem?  More extreme problems are more likely to get on the agenda  Geographic concentration of those affected  Number of people affected  Visibility of the problem  Tractability of the problem IV Theories to the Study of Policy  The Stages Heuristic  Problem definition: What can we do about the problem?  Policy Formulation: What is the better solution?  Adoption: Formal decision  Implementation: Bureaucracy/ Interpret the policy  Evaluation: Often times there isn’t  Feedback: affect how people view the government.  Hofferbert’s Policy Funnel 1. Historical/Geographical Conditions 2. Socioeconomic Factors 3. Mass Political Behavior 4. Government Institutions 5. Elite Behavior 6. Policy Output 7. Politically Relevant Events POLS 625 Week 2 Notes- Lecture 3 & 4; By Rebecca Munson V Policy Typology Framework  Type of policy drives the politics (Lowi)  Types of Policy and Importance of Actors  Distributive: diffuse costs, low conflict (farm subsidies)  Regulatory: some conflict, loss of actors (criminal law, environmental policies)  Redistributive: more conflict, actors vary (social welfare)  Constituent or governmental operations  Combo: Social Regulatory Policy VI Kingdon’s Policy Streams Theory  To understand why the government adopts a policy because of certain factors  Problem Stream: out there in the community there are problems that people want to do something about.  Politics Stream: what’s going on in the political world; what are prominent actors saying/doing.  Policy Stream: you have actors that advocate for their solution that solves many problems (e.g. deregulation)  Bringing it together- there are times that all the streams collide and there has to be  A political/ policy entrepreneur and window of opportunity.  PE Example: Mintrom and school choice  1990’s: push for states to adopt laws allowing for school choice.  Examines whether or not the adoption of these policies is more likely with a policy entrepreneur present  Accounting for-  Problem stream: test scores and change  Politics stream: elections, party control of legislature, strength of teacher’s union  Policy Stream: percentage of private schools, school spending, adoption of school policies. VII Policy Approaches continued…  Group/Pluralist Theory  Conflict between groups  Policy results from that conflict  Groups are equal, “today’s losers are tomorrow’s winners”  Elite Theory (Domhoff)  Three main groups set the policy agenda  Political Elite  Business Elite  Military Elite  Political Systems Theory/ Open Systems Theory POLS 625 Week 2 Notes- Lecture 3 & 4; By Rebecca Munson Demands Government Policy Supports Political Environment Feedback  Also pay attention to:  Social/Economic Context  Political/Historical Context  Private and Public Actors  Reactionary-Incrementalist model of counterterrorism policy Long-term Triggering Events Policy Process Success/Failure Policy Reassessment Short-term New Proposals Feedback  Rational Choice Theory: social choice, public choice or formal theory  Applying the principles of microeconomic theory to politics  Assume that people are self-interested utility maximizers  Methodological individualism  Often used in policy design: school vouchers and other areas like legislative voting behavior  Advocacy Coalition Framework – variant on pluralist theory  Focuses on policy subsystems:  Contain 2 or more coalitions of actors (e.g. journalists, academics and other experts)  Subsystems also includes the elected and unelected officials active in policy area.  Policy change only occurs through:  The influence of external events  Policy learning on the part of the policy actors POLS 625 Week 2 Notes- Lecture 3 & 4; By Rebecca Munson  Punctuated Equilibrium  Agenda setting model of stability and change in politics  Explains both stability and change  Politics is the mobilization of bias  Argues that political systems can never be in equilibrium but they can be stable  Governance and Agendas  Stability in a policy area is established through the construction of political institutions and the definition of the issues proceed be those institutions  Policy subsystems are the people who already care!


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