Developmental Psychology, Lecture 2 Notes
Developmental Psychology, Lecture 2 Notes 2034
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Logan Mehalic on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2034 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Patti Harrison in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychology at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
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Date Created: 09/07/16
Biological Beginnings 8/30/16 -The Evolutionary Perspective Natural selection o Individuals best adapted to their environment are most likely to survive and reproduce o Their characteristics are passed on to the next generation o Over generations, organisms with characteristics best suited for survival make up an increased percentage of the population Evolutionary psychology o Emphasizes adaptation, reproduction and survival of the fittest in shaping behavior o Evolution explains human physical features and behaviors Evolutionary development psychology o Extended childhood evolved for human beings o Evolved characteristics are not always adaptive in contemporary society Natural selection and adaptive behavior o Darwin and survival of the fittest o Social Darwinism Nazism Apartheid Abortion of genetically defective Sociobiology (more socially accepted) o Konrad Lorenz Imprinting – Nobel Price, 1973 “On Aggression” – handshakes (showing you have no weapon) and smiles Innate behaviors – birdsong, wolf howls LaMarckian theory o You can pass information on to your children in biological ways that do not involve genes o Worm Runner’s Digest – planaria o Case of the Midwife Toad -Genetic Foundations of Development Genetic variability Combining genes of two parents in offspring increases genetic variability in the population Mutated genes, or permanently altered segments of DNA, form by chance or environmental damage Genotype o A persona’s actual genetic material Phenotype o Observable and measurable characteristics of an individual Height Hair Color Intelligence o Range of phenotypes can be expressed for each genotype Dominant-recessive genes o Dominant gene overrides the expression of the recessive gene o Recessive gene exerts its influence only if both genes in the pair are recessive Sex-linked genes o X-linked inheritance results when a mutated gene is carried on the X chromosome o Females are carriers, while males may exhibit and X-linked disease Genetic imprinting o Occurs when genes have differing effects depending on whether inherited from mother or father o Chemical process “silences” on member of the gene pair Polygenetic inheritance o Most human characteristics are determined by interaction of several genes -Genetic Principles Chromosomes abnormalities o Down syndrome o The older the mother is the more likely her genetic material has been damaged o Older women are more likely to have a child with down syndrome o Most woman at 35 are encouraged to have genetic testing done Sex-linked chromosome abnormalities o Klinefelter syndrome o Fragile X syndrome o Turner syndrome (XO) – will by default be female, extremely feminine, shorter o XYY syndrome -Gene-Linked Abnormalities PKU: phenylketonuria – about 3 days after birth blood should be tested, fetal alanine (found in nutria-sweet) can cause brain damage Cystic fibrosis - lungs Diabetes – type 1 linked to genetic background Hemophilia – linked to genetic background Sickle-cell anemia – found in African populations -Genetic foundations of development -Reaction Range Range of possible phenotypes for each genotype, suggesting importance of environment’s restrictiveness or richness o Canalization: process by which characteristics take a narrow path or developmental course -Behavior Genetics Studies influences of heredity and environment on individual differences Studies use twins or adoptees o Monozygotic and dizygotic twins o Adoption study: examine behavior and psychological characteristics -Heredity and Environment Interaction: The Nature-Nurture Debate Heredity-environment correlations o Passive genotype-environment Parents provide/guide child’s interests o Evocative genotype-environment Some traits elect more adult responses o Active (niche-picking) genotype-environment Child seeks/selects favorable environments o In infancy, environment mostly controlled by parents o As children age, their experiences extend more beyond the family’s influence -The Heredity-Environment and Epigenetic Views Heredity-Environment Correlation View o Heredity Environment Epigenetic View o Heredity Environment -Prenatal Development Fallopian tubes are right beside the ovaries, each month and egg or two will “ripen” and burst, drift down the fallopian tube (this is where fertilization occurs) and move to the uterine wall. An ovum, or egg is released (ovulation) by the ovary and moves into the fallopian rube Sperm moving through the uterus into the fallopian rube meets the egg and fertilization takes place The fertilized egg, or embryo, continues to the uterus where it develops the uterine wall Males are much more likely to suffer genetic defects Ovaries form 3 trimester of pregnancy, and are born with most of their eggs they will have for the rest of their life Fertility decreases with age for both men and women Have 400 eggs to potentially have a baby with 1 out of 50 pregnancies is twins, many times one of the twins aborts 35 of older have a greater change of having twins -Birth Control Nothing is foolproof Birth control pill and drug interactions (antidepressants, use a backup method) Barrier methods “Abortion Pill” – RU486 “Morning After Pill” – LO-OVRAL IUD has the lowest failure rate, followed by the pill, then the condom -Overcoming Infertility – trying to have a baby for over a year without success Artificial Insemination In vitro Fertilization Gamete Intra-Fallopian Transfer (GIFT) Zygote Intra-Fallopian Transfer (ZIFT) Microinjection – inject sperm into egg and then implant it Zona Drilling Surrogacy – someone else carries the child for you -Maternal Serum Screening If all pregnant women 35 years or older chose to have amniocentesis, about 30% of trisomy 21 pregnancies would be detected. Women younger than 35 years give birth to about 70% of infants with Down syndrome. Maternal serum screenings (multiple-marker screening) can allow the detection of trisomy 21 pregnancies in women in this younger age group -The Course of Prenatal Development Germinal period: 2 seeks after conception Embryonic period: 2 to 8 weeks after conception o Three layers form o Umbilical cord connect to placenta Fetal period o From 2 months after conception to birth o Trimester of pregnancy -The Three Trimesters of Prenatal Development Embryonic and fetal development Baby moving -The Germinal Period Consists of the first two weeks after conception Detected by pregnancy tests sensitive to Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (HCG) -The Embryonic Period Consists of the period 2-8 weeks after conception during which organogenesis occurs Includes cell differentiation into 3 layers o Endoderm o Ectoderm o Mesoderm -The Fetal Period Consists of the period from two months after conception until the termination of the pregnancy Alphafetoprotein – spinabifida Glucola – gestational diabetes
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