Week 3 Notes
Week 3 Notes PBIO 3440
Popular in Medicinal Herbs Spices and Plants
Popular in Plant Biology
This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Ariana Borzillo on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PBIO 3440 at University of Georgia taught by Affolter in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Medicinal Herbs Spices and Plants in Plant Biology at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/07/16
Categories of Medicinal Use Categories of Medicinal Plant Use Pharmaceutical Medicines Prescription and OTC Potent Highly targeted Development o Cost of developing and bringing a new prescription drug to market is about $350 million to $5 billion o Drug patents extend 20 years from date of filing; effective life generally 7-12 years Plant-Derived Prescription Drugs o Approximately 120 prescription drugs are derived from plants representing 95 species o 40% of the prescriptions written in the USA contain one or more plant-derived active ingredients o Opium Poppy Papaver somniferum Annual, native to Mediterranean Immature fruit capsule is source of opium, a latex containing 25 different alkaloids Morphine and codeine are powerful analgesics (pain relievers) Heroin is a semisynthetic derivative of morphine 5% of crop is used in medicine Deaths from heroin overdose surged 175% in the United States between 2010 and 2014 Children make good harvesters of opium in the poppy farms in Guerrero, Mexico. If they fall, they are less likely than adults to tumble down the steep slopes and hurt themselves. Angelica Ortega, pictured at left, is a 15-year-old opium harvester Opium production in Mexico increased 50% in 2014 o Coca Erythroxylum coca Evergreen shrub native to eastern slopes of Andes –Peru and Bolivia Source of cocaine alkaloid with stimulant and anesthetic properties Used by Incas to relieve fatigue, thirst, and hunger Shrub has been introduced to Indonesia where use is widespread Cocaine Shrub has been introduced to Indonesia where use is widespread Cocaine was once used as a local anesthetic in eye surgery and dentistry little medical use of cocaine today synthetics Novacaine and Xylocaine developed that lack stimulatory effects on CNS Highly addictive and dangerous cardiovascular side effects Coca Cola used to contain cocaine In 1886 Georgia druggist John Pemberton introduced an alcoholic version of Coca- Cola Today the Coca leaves are “decocainized” “Cola” refers to an extract of the African Kola nut that contains 2% caffeine o Willow 2 Salix spp. Shrubs or trees widespread in cold and temperate regions Bark is the source of salicin, the compound that led to the development of aspirin Roots used in ancient Greece for pain and gout used by Native Americans for headaches aspirin is the most widely used drug after alcohol and nicotine Prostaglandins Aspirin blocks an enzyme that is involved in the production of hormones called prostaglandins chemical mediators that bring about the inflammatory response by vasodilation, making capillaries permeable, and sensitizing nerve cells to pain o Glycosides Each molecule consists of a sugar (often the simple 6-carbon glucose molecule) bonded to a non-sugar compound non-sugar portion is variable and often toxic and/or medicinally valuable Cyanogenic glycosides produce hydrocyanic acid (HCN) when the glycoside breaks apart results in cyanide poisoning in seeds of almonds, plums, etc. Other glycosides are useful in treating heart disease Salacin a glycoside that breaks down into salicyclic acid and a simple sugar when ingested 3 Salicylic acid was widely used in the 19thcentury for pain relief, and for reducing fever and inflammation Unpleasant side effects of salicyclic acid were stomach pain and nausea The German Bayer Company introduced a derivative, acetyl-salicylic acid in 1899 and named it “aspirin” o ‘a’ for ‘acetyl’ and ‘spirin’ from the generic name ‘Spirea’ o Alkaloids Compounds consisting of rings of carbon and nitrogen atoms that cause physiological reactions in animals Usually slightly basic on the pH scale Chemically diverse, many synthesized in plant cells from amino acids Named with the suffix “-ine” o Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs NSAIDs, including aspirin, relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and lower fevers Ibuprofen is another NSAID that inhibits the formation of prostaglandins Characteristics of Medicinal Plants o Plants valued for their physiological, therapeutic, or psychoactive effects o Occur in many different plant families o Not limited to any particular geographic areas or habitats o Active principles often involve secondary metabolites e.g., tannins, alkaloids, terpenes these compounds often play important ecological roles in nature defense, pollination, dispersal 4 o Can be weedy or rare species, widespread or narrowly distributed o Some have long history of cultivation; others have never been domesticated o Many medicinal plants that have been used in crude form for thousands of years are still very important today as pharmaceutical medicines o Often their chemical components have been structurally modified to make them more potent, more easily administered, and less toxic Herbal OTC Products Dietary supplements Natural compounds Less refined Less potent Traditional and Folk Medicines often used in the context of alternative belief systems Indian Snakeroot Rauwolfia serpentine Shrub native from India to Indonesia Roots are source of the alkaloid reserpine Reserpine is used as a pharmaceutical drug to lower blood pressure and as a treatment for schizophrenia has a long history of use in traditional Ayurvedic medicine o Used to treat epilepsy, mental disorders, hypertension, dysentery o Antidote for snake and insect bites 5 o Mahatma Ghandi chewed the roots to achieve a state of calm and contemplation In the 1930’s, Indian researchers demonstrated in clinical trials that Snakeroot extracts were effective as a sedative in cases of mental illness and in lowering blood pressure Eventually western pharmaceutical companies took notice and in 1952 the alkaloid reserpine was isolated and identified as the most active component Reserpine lowers blood pressure by blocking the neurotransmitter molecules that transmit nerve signals between the sympathetic nervous system and the heart and blood vessels, relaxing blood vessels and reducing heart output o Reserpine was used in psychiatric medicine as an alternative to shock treatments and drastic surgery such as lobotomies difficult to propagate o Seed germination is only 10% o plants are propagated by rootstock cuttings o Wild populations are still harvested for raw material o Species is endangered throughout much of range Foxglove Digitalis purpurea Herbaceous Biennial popular ornamental garden plant native to Europe Leaves are source of the cardiac glycosides digoxin and digitoxin Slows down and strengthens heartbeat o treats congestive heart failure Digitoxin (from Digitalis) is a glycoside o useful in treating heart disease 6 o it increases cardiac output and fluid excretion o decreases edema (dropsy) and fluid in the lungs o Flowers and leaves of Foxglove can be fatally toxic o the therapeutic dose is close to the toxic dose History o Vincent van Gogh painted his Portrait of Dr. Gachet several months before he committed suicide o Dr. Gachet is believed to have treated van Gogh with Digitalis for mania and epilepsy “xanthopsia” is an occasional side effect of digitalis, causing a person to perceive a yellow tint in his surroundings Some art historians attribute the yellow tint in many of van Gogh’s paintings to xanthopsia Madagascar Periwinkle Caharanthus roseus Annual or perennial native to Madagascar pantropical weed Related to the common groundcover Vinca(Myrtle) Contains the alkaloids vincristine and vinblastine Used as a chemotherapy agent for treatment of leukemia and Hodgkin’s disease Pacific Yew Taxus brevifolia Evergreen tree native to the Pacific Northwest of USA Grows in old growth forests Bark contains paclitaxel o used in cancer treatment, particularly breast, lung, testicular, and ovarian cancers 7 Popularity of Plant Medicine declined then increased during the 19thand 20th centuries Advances in “bench chemistry” during the 1800s led to a shift in interest away from natural products towards “more modern” synthetics and derivatives Interest in discovering new drugs from plants was reawakened following the discovery of penicillin by Alexander Fleming in 1929 Basic Vocab Infection o the invasion and multiplication of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, and parasites that are not normally present within the body Antibiotic o a medicine that destroys or slows down the growth of microorganisms, primarily bacteria Penicillin o a group of antibiotic drugs derived from Pencillium fungi Random Screening Programs In the 1950s, there was renewed interest in using “random screening programs” to search for new pharmaceutical medicines from plants Plant extracts were tested against various bioassays to look for therapeutic properties against cancer, diabetes, and other diseases Bioassays are tests for biological activity using living organisms o e.g. mice, tissues, cultures, etc. 8 Targeted Screening Strategies in the 1950s and 1960s there was a lot of random screening for any medicinal plants Taxonomic Targetting o Looking at certain groups with a likelihood of having medicinal properties o Potato Family Tropane alkaloids Atropine Hysociamine Scopolamine Hallucinogenic Fat soluble can be absorbed through the skin analgesic anesthetic narcotic including sleep or stupor simultaneously relieves pain Hexing Herbs Thought to be used for witch craft Belladona Herbane Broom stick was rubs with the mixtures and the herbs were absorbed into the genitals which made it possible to fly Contain hallucinogenic Henbane o Killer of hens o consumption can cause hallucinations, convulsions, vomiting and death o now used to relieve pain in the digestive system 9 o in Medieval times, fumes of burning henbane seeds were thought to drive out the “worm” that causes toothaches o Datura Hallucinogenic Used to drug slaves for theft Jimson Weed (Datura Stramonium) Jamestown colony adjusted to eating it during famine and for three days they were insane o Brugmansia tree-like versions of Datura species used in South America to produce violent hallucinations several species of Brugmansia, numerous cultigens a plant species or variety known only in cultivation, arising from artificial selection devil’s (angel’s) trumpet will cause foaming at the mouth and convulsions Ecological Targetting o Tropical Vines A disproportionately large number of medicinally useful compounds from tropical forests come from lianas Vines usually have relatively few, short-lived leaves that are scattered through the canopy Lianas might be expected to concentrate more of their resources in highly active “qualitative” defensive compounds rather than energetically expensive broad-spectrum “quantitative” defenses that reduce digestibility Curare 10 Blowgun dart poison Curare mixtures contain several different species important component is Chondodendron tomentosum o which contains the alkaloid tubocurarine Used in Western medicine as a muscle relaxant during surgery o it blocks the transmission of nerve impulses to the muscles in nature used as a muscle relaxant and breath hindrance Ethnobotanical Targeting o Ethnobotany the study of the relationships between plants and people o ethno-directed sampling based on the concept that indigenous cultures have been performing “human bioassays” on the plants in their immediate environment for generations through systems of traditional medicine echnique involves direct interaction with local cultures to study what plants are used medicinally, and for what purpose. Details concerning preparation of medicines and collecting practices are also important o two step process cultural pre-screen indigenous people experiment with the plants in their environment and identify those that are bioactive ethnobotanical filter 11 conscious or subconscious intellectual screen that scientists employ to determine which plants warrant further study o best cultures for ethnobotanical targeting Presence of a cultural mechanism for the accurate transmission of medicinal plant knowledge from generation to generation A floristically diverse environment Continuity of residence in the area over many generations o Issues with ethnobotanical targeting Genetic property rights under the Rio Treaty on Biodiversityeach signatory nation has sovereignty over all biodiversity within its boundaries Intellectual Property Rights communities should be compensated for the knowledge acquired through generations of cultural pre-screening Prior informed consent local communities (in addition to national governments) must also give consent for research activities o Bioprospecting the search for new pharmaceutical or industrial chemicals from plants and animals o Biopiracy bioprospecting activities that do not adequately address issues of intellectual and genetic property rights Zoopharmacognosy o Watching how animals self-medicate o Harvard Researcher in Tanzania Observed chimpanzees Aspilia 12 they would eat rolled leaves and saturate them with their saliva would be whole in feces and intestinal parasites would be stuck to the leaves o Elephant Mom Pregnant elephants will usually walk 2-4 miles in a day One day a pregnant elephant walked 17 miles to a tree Ate the tree Gave birth 3 days after days It was discovered that women where the tree existed sucked on the bark to induce labor 13
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