Anatomy & Physiology - Cell Replication
Anatomy & Physiology - Cell Replication 80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001
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80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Luber on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001 at Clemson University taught by John R Cummings in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I in Biology at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 09/07/16
Cell Replication Cell division o Somatic cell division Mitosis Parent cell produces two daughter cells (1 cell becomes 2) Two cells are genetically identical to each other Diploid, genetically identical o Reproductive cell division Meiosis Stem cell divides to produce gametes Original cell produces 4 cells that are different from parent cell Parent is diploid, cells are haploid Those 4 cells are genetically different from one another as well (crossing over, independent assortment, etc) Cell cycle o Interphase (between phases) – not a phase of cell division! It is when the cell is not dividing (most of cell’s life) G1 – growth; producing proteins, helps make it ready to divide, centriole begins to replicate S – synthesis; when the DNA replicates itself G2 – growth; getting closer to division, finishing replication of centriole o Cell division Nuclear division Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Cytokinesis o Wont divide unless stimulated to divide*** DNA Replication o DNA unwinds o Enzyme (helicase) separates strands at site called replication bubble o Exposed nucleotides serve as template for complimentary pairing o Primers initiate replication o DNA polymerase adds nucleotides o Replication of DNA is called semiconservative (always copy from original; never copy from copies) o DNA ligase connects fragments on lagging strand o Histone proteins attach to reform nucleosomes and condense DNA Mitosis o Prophase o Metaphase o Anaphase o Telophase o Division of nucleus broken into fragments, then cytokinesis Meiosis o Interphase – most of the life of the cell o Reduction division o Equatorial division Factors controlling cell division o Contact inhibition - factor that stops cell division Cells from single layer in culture; cells removed; cells replace remove cells; division stops when single layer is repaired o Cyclins – regulatory protein that controls the S phase Accumulate during interphase Bind with cdks o Cdks – cyclin dependent kinase; protein produced by cell Stimulates a series of complex chemical reactions happening in the cell o MPF – mitosis promoting factors; cyclins combine with cdks to produce MPF’s; if we don’t get enough, we won’t exit interphase Have to have these in order to go into mitosis Uncontrolled cell growth o Malignant tumor – cancerous Metastasized o Benign tumor – not cancerous Tumors o Carcinoma – tumor of epithelium Surface of skin; slow growing o Sarcoma – tumor in connective tissue Underneath epithelial tissue o Myeloma – tumor in bone marrow Usually diagnosed when broken bone occurs Cancer treatments o Chemotherapy - use of chemicals that are intentionally put into body in attempt to kill or deactivate dividing cells Kills some good cells Side effects – loss of hair o Surgery – remove the cancer completely Mastectomy o Radiation therapy – focus gamma energy and shoot it at cancer kills cancer cells Burns on body o Hyperthermia – heating cells burn tumor o New drugs – generally selected by patients that none of the rest has worked for; clinical trials patients volunteer to use drugs Insurance doesn’t cover clinical trials DNA products o DNA – produces things that make proteins DNA replication is new DNA o RNA – by making RNA, DNA makes new proteins RNA o Transfer RNA Carrier molecule Lots of different kinds – each specific to different amino acid Anticodon o Ribosomal RNA Made of subunits that are assembled in nucleolus o Messenger RNA Codon codes for specific amino acid Protein synthesis o Transcription Production of messenger RNA from DNA o Translation Use of code in messenger RNA to assemble amino acids into protein Use 3 base codons to determine the sequence of amino acids o Exon DNA – stuff that codes Used to create something that exits the nucleus o Intron DNA – “junk” Never leaves nucleus o Splicing – splices away the junk and leaves the coding stuff o Transcription only contains the coding things o AUG – start codon o The gentic code Lot of redundancy Same amino acids can be codes for same thing Start codon and stop codon 3 stop codons