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Anatomy & Physiology - Cell Replication

by: Courtney Luber

Anatomy & Physiology - Cell Replication 80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001

Marketplace > Clemson University > Biology > 80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001 > Anatomy Physiology Cell Replication
Courtney Luber

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About this Document

These notes cover the lecture on 09/06.
Human Anatomy and Physiology I
John R Cummings
Class Notes
anatomy, Physiology
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Luber on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001 at Clemson University taught by John R Cummings in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I in Biology at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 09/07/16
Cell Replication  Cell division o Somatic cell division  Mitosis  Parent cell produces two daughter cells (1 cell becomes 2)  Two cells are genetically identical to each other  Diploid, genetically identical o Reproductive cell division  Meiosis  Stem cell divides to produce gametes  Original cell produces 4 cells that are different from parent cell  Parent is diploid, cells are haploid  Those 4 cells are genetically different from one another as well (crossing over, independent assortment, etc)  Cell cycle o Interphase (between phases) – not a phase of cell division! It is when the cell is not dividing (most of cell’s life)  G1 – growth; producing proteins, helps make it ready to divide, centriole begins to replicate  S – synthesis; when the DNA replicates itself  G2 – growth; getting closer to division, finishing replication of centriole o Cell division  Nuclear division  Prophase  Metaphase  Anaphase  Telophase  Cytokinesis o Wont divide unless stimulated to divide***  DNA Replication o DNA unwinds o Enzyme (helicase) separates strands at site called replication bubble o Exposed nucleotides serve as template for complimentary pairing o Primers initiate replication o DNA polymerase adds nucleotides o Replication of DNA is called semiconservative (always copy from original; never copy from copies) o DNA ligase connects fragments on lagging strand o Histone proteins attach to reform nucleosomes and condense DNA  Mitosis o Prophase o Metaphase o Anaphase o Telophase o Division of nucleus broken into fragments, then cytokinesis  Meiosis o Interphase – most of the life of the cell o Reduction division o Equatorial division  Factors controlling cell division o Contact inhibition - factor that stops cell division  Cells from single layer in culture; cells removed; cells replace remove cells; division stops when single layer is repaired o Cyclins – regulatory protein that controls the S phase  Accumulate during interphase  Bind with cdks o Cdks – cyclin dependent kinase; protein produced by cell  Stimulates a series of complex chemical reactions happening in the cell o MPF – mitosis promoting factors; cyclins combine with cdks to produce MPF’s; if we don’t get enough, we won’t exit interphase  Have to have these in order to go into mitosis  Uncontrolled cell growth o Malignant tumor – cancerous  Metastasized o Benign tumor – not cancerous  Tumors o Carcinoma – tumor of epithelium  Surface of skin; slow growing o Sarcoma – tumor in connective tissue  Underneath epithelial tissue o Myeloma – tumor in bone marrow  Usually diagnosed when broken bone occurs  Cancer treatments o Chemotherapy - use of chemicals that are intentionally put into body in attempt to kill or deactivate dividing cells  Kills some good cells  Side effects – loss of hair o Surgery – remove the cancer completely  Mastectomy o Radiation therapy – focus gamma energy and shoot it at cancer  kills cancer cells  Burns on body o Hyperthermia – heating cells  burn tumor o New drugs – generally selected by patients that none of the rest has worked for; clinical trials  patients volunteer to use drugs  Insurance doesn’t cover clinical trials  DNA products o DNA – produces things that make proteins  DNA replication is new DNA o RNA – by making RNA, DNA makes new proteins  RNA o Transfer RNA  Carrier molecule  Lots of different kinds – each specific to different amino acid  Anticodon o Ribosomal RNA  Made of subunits that are assembled in nucleolus o Messenger RNA  Codon codes for specific amino acid  Protein synthesis o Transcription  Production of messenger RNA from DNA o Translation  Use of code in messenger RNA to assemble amino acids into protein  Use 3 base codons to determine the sequence of amino acids o Exon DNA – stuff that codes  Used to create something that exits the nucleus o Intron DNA – “junk”  Never leaves nucleus o Splicing – splices away the junk and leaves the coding stuff o Transcription only contains the coding things o AUG – start codon o The gentic code  Lot of redundancy  Same amino acids can be codes for same thing  Start codon and stop codon  3 stop codons


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