U.S. History 1877- present Week 1 lecture notes
U.S. History 1877- present Week 1 lecture notes AMH2020 0003
University of Central Florida
Popular in U.S. History 1877-Present
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Popular in History
This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Becca Petersen on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AMH2020 0003 at University of Central Florida taught by Dr. James Clark in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 99 views. For similar materials see U.S. History 1877-Present in History at University of Central Florida.
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Date Created: 09/07/16
U.S. History Terms to Know: AbeLincoln Andrew Johnson Ford theatre Ulysses sgrant JohnWilkesbooth Presidential reconstruction Radical reconstruction KluKluxKlan TenureofOffice Act Black Codes Thirteenth Amendment Fourteenth Amendment FifteenthAmendment Tilden Hayes Carpetbaggers Scalawags Exoduster Freedman’s bureau ClassLectureNotes–Dr.JamesClark -1865-the war is going very badly fortheSouth Mostbooksseemtofocus onthetopicofeither Christianity ortheCivilWar– butthe CivilWar comes down to somethingreallysimplLincoln’s search for a general. Somany generalscome andgo,some are better notedfor literallydoing anything else buttheirmilitaryskills… Ex: AmbroseBurnside-weget thewordsideburns Immense amount of deathscome from… -Fallingtreeskilledhundredsofpeople -Dysentery Lincolncannotfind a general thatwouldjust yell,“charge!” UNTILhe finally findsUlysses S. Grant –strange guy,failure @everything except killing people. His real name wasHiramUlyssesGrant. He went toWest pointand they gothisname wrong andhe just letit go–happy to lose hisname to change his initials(they previously spelled,“hug”. Hewas adrunk whowasthrownout ofthearmy prior tothecivilwar. He getsbackin throughwhatweknowtoday astheNational Guardandthey let him back in whichgave him anopportunity toprovehimself. When Lincoln asksfor enlistmentshesuspectsthewarwilllastforonly90days. Manypeople that it would only lastone day. Fortheconfederate army,youwouldjoin the army(maybe wyourhighschoolclass, organization,fraternity,etc.) you wouldforaregimentandelect yourown captain. You’ve knownthese people all yourlives and thewaris goingbadly. Doyoustay andfightorsneak awayin themiddleof the night? (Mind you that)The confederatesupply system has brokendownandyoucan look across the field and see30union soldierslookingbackat you. And you’veonly got 6 bullets. And because theConfederatesupplysystemhas broken downyouhave not eaten in a week and thereis no foodcoming. Richmondisaboutan hourwalk south… Asa result, theConfederate army has thehighest desertionrateofany modern army TheConfederatecongressmeetsandisuseless. And they havebeen uselessthroughout thewar. They vote to 1. Raisepostage taxto raisea littleextramoney,whichmay have been great had there still been postage at that point. 2. Same with newspapers. 3. They alsovoted toredotheflag. They hadabout6 flags in circulation. There wasa confederate battle flag with12starson it–they were hopingfor th a 12 statebut they only had11. Theother flag was allwhitewitha blue SaintAndrewspatchin thecorner. The problemwaswhen therewas no wind blowingit lookedlike asurrender flag. Grant is stretching his linewhich is forcing Robert ELee(confedcommander) tostretchhis linebut the problemis,heisrunningoutoftroops. Soit’sonlya matteroftime. Grant hasbeen a real butcher. Whathe knows isthat if hisarmy can getmoresoldiers,they canwin. He isconducting awar ofinhalation. If the union can outnumbertheconfederacy 50 to one, and lets say he loses25 in abattleandthe southlosesone,theyhavestillwonthe battle. Sunday morning1865– Lee told Davis thatthey neededtoevacuateRichmond immediately. (Initially hetold himtheyhad afew weeks butGrantiscoming on toostrong) Davisgetsthemessagein churchand leaves heading back tothewhite house (oftheconfederacy) Hemeetswith hiscabinetand they decide toleave andstartpackingstuffup. Both armies supply their soldiers withliquor(a lot ofbattlesstartedoverpeoplemeeting atacreek for water. And when they didfight(bullRun) the water would becomevery bloody. And it could also cause dysentery.) The confed government decidedthatthey didn’twanttheUniontohavethe liquor sotheypoured thousands andthousands of gallons ofliquorintothe streetsofa city without a sewersystem. They alsohad a lot of ammunition that they didn’twantthe union togetahold ofsothey blew it up. And sonowyou havefireplusalcohol. Sowhen theunion army rollsin thenextmorning,Richmondwelcomesthem andasksfor help toputout the fire. There areonly two-dozen soldiersinuniform atthispointleftin the townandthey areall African American. Even though this warisabout slavery,the southpasses a lawthatstates if you own20 slavesor more you don’thave togofight. In the finaldaysof the civilwar,they agreed to take AfricanAmericans. There aretwo dozenofthese guysin Richmond that never see combat. Lincolnsaysthat 182 thousand AfricanAmericansoldierswhosavethedayfortheUnion army Now Leesarmy doesnot havetoworry aboutdefendingRichmond sothey startto drift west. WilburMcClain–1861 helives rightbetween Washington andRichmond. He getsaknock on hisdoor fromtheConfederatearmy thatsaysthefirstbattlewillbefoughtinhisfront yard. Bythe end of the day hisyard andhouseis completelyshotup. Hislivestockisruined etc. Hestudiesa map after another battletook placeinhisfront yarda yearlater(BullRun II). Hemoves toa place thatis in themiddle of nowherethathethinkswillneverseebattleor have anything to dow the war–thetown of Appomattoxcourthouse. ArlingtonNational Cemetery–generalLee’sformer front yard It wasa weird situationbecauseLee hadalways beenconsideredthesuperiorgeneral– Lincolnactually asked himtobe the commanderof theunion army. SoitwasoddthatLee would surrender toGrant. They discussedsurrenderterms–heletsLeesmenkeeptheirarms –heisnot really concerned aboutthem fighting–these menare goingtohavetowalkfrom Virginia to Orlando–they will need their gunsjusttostay alive. Peoplestart yanking Wilbur’shouse apart–door, nail, window, chair, etc.…everyonewants souvenirs fromthis event so bytheend oftheday hishouseisleveled. In short the Civil War starts and end in Wilbur McClain’s living room The majorof the confedarmyhas surrenderedandtheotheronedowninNorthCarolina surrenders about a week later. Lincoln takesa steamboatdowntoRichmond andwalks through the streetsofRichmond. He goesto theconfederatewhitehouseand goesinto JeffersonDavis’s officeand digsaroundandthat ishislast tripdown. For the pastfour yearsthe south has saidtheyhave therighttoleavetheunionand theyhave doneso,and the North saysthe opposite. Andat theend–theNorthsays,waitnowthatwe think about it,we guess you guysdid actually leavetheUnion sonowyouhavetobe readmitted. “With malice towards none, with charity for all, lets put the war behind us and move on as a nation.” - Lincoln’s inaugural address Ifyouwerea northernerwould you want totakeLincolnsadviceorget revengeonthesouth? Doyou elect peoplewho aregoing to pushfor revenge? Therewerealotofbitterpeoplewhohad suffered severely fromthe war–loss of friends and family,limbs,land etc. The country was severely divided – andmaybe Lincoln couldhavesavedthe countryand keptthemunited through thathad hesurvived. IntheNorth theypaya bounty for joiningthe army. Sowehavenoidea howmany people actuallyenlistedbecause peoplewouldenlistmultiple timesiftheycouldgetawaywithitto get more $$$$$$$$$$$. Inthesouthwe believe 600,000 men served. Alot oftherecordsareincomplete–lostor inaccurate Approximately 250 k died in the south (that’s almost 1 out of 2 people) and 350 k died in the north People who are brave are on the front lines and they’re the ones who get shot. That means an entiregeneration of peoplebetween 16-30somethingyearoldshavebeen wipedout. The south isa mess. They need greatleaders but they’re alldeadfrom thewar. Congress passes abill calledWade Davis-to give congresscontroloverreconstruction. And Lincolnsaysno andveto’sit. Lincoln = forgiveness Congress = Revenge (elected by a lot of bitter, pissed off northerners) Lincoln’s Ass assination : Lincolngoes toa play and asks tohave hisfavoritebodyguardcomewith. Thesecretary of war says that thebodyguardhasbeen working really hardlately andshouldget thenightoff. Peoplehate MaryLincoln (sheiscrazy)–sohecan’t findanyone tocomewithhim. Eventually forced thesecofwar togo withhim JohnWilkesBooth–Tomhanks of their day. Hehadbeen inactiveinthewarupuntilthat point–but hemeetsup withsomesouthern sympathizers. Theyinitiallywantedtokidnapthe president but that changedwhenLeesurrendered. Thenewplanwas tokillthepresident,VP, secof state,and sec of war. Ford’stheatre is thecenter ofentertainmentin Washington–youhavethisstreet with thousandsand thousandsofpeoplewhoare partyingtocelebratetheendofthewar. Boothliterally just walkedintothe president’sboxandshotLincoln anddiedaweeklater. Johnson– Istaken to the village tailorasa child(essentially soldoff by hisparents) thetailor becomeshissurrogate parents–theguy whoowns the tailorshophasnoreason to sendhim to schoolor feed himwell or househim well. Johnson runsawayasa childtoTennesseeand meetssomeone theretoteach him to readandright. Wealthywhitesthatcameintothetailor shopand treated him likedirtsohehateswealthywhites,newlyfreed slaves,thelistgoes on. Heisalso notvery personable. 1865-1877 – Reconstruction Phase one; Presidential Reconstruction – 1865-1866 Phase 2; Congressional or radical reconstruction – 1867-1877 1864–Lincoln thinkshe is going tolosetheelectionin November. Instead ofrunningfor reelectionas arepublican,he will run asa nationalunity candidate. Heisgoingtodump his VPand pick aloyal southerndemocratashisnew running mate. At theendofthewar the south is expecting all hell to break lo. Theythinkthat allthe whiteland will betakenand given to black families. Theythinkwhiteconfederateleaderswill behangedorimprisoned. They arewaiting on pinsand needles wondering what’sgoingtohappen. And noneofthese horriblethingsare happening sothe Southstarts tothink–lets in effect,reinstitute slavery. They passwhat areknown asthe Black Codes –torestrictAfricanAmericans -They cannot haveguns -They need a permitto do anything otherthan farm-whatthey aren’tawareofisthattheartisans ofthesouth–theblacksmiths,architects,etc., areallslaves. Theyareextremelytalented. But white peopledon’twant to pickcottonso theyrequireblacks tostayonthefarms wheretheywere previouslyenslaved. (North getspretty pissed offover this) -They can’tserveonjuries Soin 1866 the people who wantto punishthe southwin theelection. Theresultisthatthe south isdivided into5military districts–generals are assigned,army unitssentin… The problemis thatthefurtheryougetaway fromthe centralizedmilitaryplacesthefewerrights slavesorformerslaves have. Infactsomeplaces didn’tevenknowthewarwasover. Sothereisa greatvariationinthe treatmentof blacksthroughout thesouth. Over thenexthundred yearswhitesoutherners findwaystogetaround thelaw. Thirteenth amendment; freed slaves -Loopholes–you neversaid they were citizens Fourteenth amendment ;citizenship -Moreloopholes Fifteenth amendment; -Nofucking clue -AccordingtoWikipedia–“prohibitsthe federalandstate governments from denying a citizen theright to votebased onthat citizen's"race,color,orprevious conditionof servitude." Itwas ratified on February 3,1870,as thethirdandlastoftheReconstruction Amendments.” Literacy test Grandfather laws -you havethe same rightsasyourgrandfather The southis verycreativewith coming upwithloopholesand thenorthisveryslowtoreact Reconstruction historyis writtenlargely by southerners. Soblackswere horriblepeoplewho couldn’t run statesand thewhitesthatwerein cahootswiththemwerehorribleleadersand thenfortunately theex confed leadersregainedcontrolofthesouthand allwasright withthe world again. –UNTIL the80’swhenthey realizeditwas garbageand rewrotethetextbooks For example;the termsCarpetBaggers, scallywags InWashingtonpresidentJohnson hasalmost nopower–congresscanjustrollright overhis veto–EXCEPT that he can still appoint generals becauseheisstillcommanderandchief Congress wants totakeaway his right todo thatby passingthetenureofofficeact(horrible actthat waslater repealed) IfObama doesn’t like his secofstate, allhe hastodoissaythat ‘you’refired” The tenure of office actsaysthatyou needtohave permission tofirepeople It isa bad law although thegoal is good. Johnson defiesthislaw–andheshouldhavebecause hewasrightin doing so. Congress wants toimpeachhimandtheycomewithinonevoteof doing so. But through all of thisJohnson has lostallpower Electionof 1876 Tilden-democrat–184 of the185 votesthat he needsintheElectoralCollegeandhehas won thepopularvote Hayes-republican–says I lost and am goingto bed. Oneofhisaidssaysheydon’tstresswe have a plan. They want totaketheelectoralvotesofthreesouthern states. Becauseofall kindsofirregularities on both sides nooneis sure whowonanyofthosestatestothisday. Republicanparty sendsoperativesin tobuyvotesinFlorida. Soineffect therepublicans undoubtedly steal theelection. (Thedemocratswantedtostealitbuttheygotbeattothe punchbythe republicans whohad more topromise intermsofpositionsin office) Sotherepublicans wintheelection andthedemocratsdon’tcomplain becauseasecret deal hasbeenworked out. They say, ‘go alongwiththis andwewillpulloutallthemilitary presencein the southand putaformer confederatememberinthecabinet.’ Postmaster general –theconfedposition–they arein charge of thousands and thousandsofjobs–hire whoever the hellyouwantto. Aslate asthe1960’sblackpostmasters werebeing murdered in thesouth. Formerslaveshandlingyour mail. –Explainedasyourformerboyfriendhandlingyourmail. Do youwantthattohappen? Ehmaybenot. So thisnewwhitepost masterisgoingtogetrid ofall the blackpostmasters in thesouthandhire exconfeds,friends,family,etc. Thiswhole thingbrings an end to reconstruction in the south . There is nolonger protection. Whites regaintherighttovoteand mostblackofficeholderslosetheirjobs. But it isnot until the1890’sthat thesuppressionof blacksreally begins. Oneof thebiggest things thathappens withthe civilwaristheriseofsports. Youaregoing offto thearmy where there ishorrendousdowntime. Theytakethe‘sports’ that developthere and bringthem home. And as people start movingtothecitiestheystartrealizing thatthey have leisuretime that theynever had atthe farm. Thereisnocowtotakecareofduringyour downtime. Sothe moveto the city spurs interestinsports 1895–newspaper in NYcreates thefirst sports section First profootball player highered inPitt Chicago Normals 1898–very popularteam backin the day–becametheArizonaCardinals The first trulyprofessional club-^ Canton Ohio–formed the national footballleague–noone seesanymoneyinthisit ismeant to beafun thing Riseofhereditary organizations Peoplestartall these clubs–sororities andfratsanda bunchofotherclubs
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