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Lecture 3

by: Adam Kh

Lecture 3 01:119:115

Adam Kh
GPA 3.6

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General Biology Lecture 3
General Biology 1
Class Notes
GeneralBiology, Lecture Notes, Biology
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Adam Kh on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 01:119:115 at Rutgers University taught by Unknown in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see General Biology 1 in Biology at Rutgers University.


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Date Created: 09/07/16
September 11th Lecture Number 3 3.1 The Polarity of water molecules results in hydrogen bonding  The water molecule is a polar molecule.  Polarity allows water molecules to create hydrogen bonding. 3.2 emergent properties of water contribute to earth's fitness for life  Cohesive/Adhesive behavior  Ability to moderate temperature  Expansion upon freeing  Versatility as a solvent Cohesion Surface tension is a measure of how hard it is to break the surface of a liquid. Moderation of Temperature Water absorbs heat from warmer air and releases stored heat to the cooler areas. Water can absorb or release a large amount of with only a slight change in its own temperature. This is because of the water's high specific heat. Specific Heat C is the amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for 1 gram of water to change its temperature by 1 degree Celsius. C of water is 1 Cal/g per degree Celsius. Because of this high C water requires a lot of energy to change is energy. Waters high specific can be traced back to its hydrogen bonding. Heat is absorbed -----> hydrogen bond breaks Heat is released -----> bond is formed Water also has a high heat of vaporization. Helps with sweating. Ice floats because hydrogen bond in is more ordered than water, therefore it becomes less dense than water. Hydrophilic: Disolves in water (polar molecules solve in water) Hydrophobic: does not like water (oil) (non-polar molecules wont solve in water) A colloid is a stable suspension of fine particles in a liquid. 2.3 Van der Waals Interactions If electrons are distributed asymmetrically in molecules or atoms, they can result in "hot spots" of positive or negative charge. Van der waals interaction are the attractions between molecules that are close together as a result of these charges. The Energy levels of Electrons  Energy is the capacity to cause change or do work.  Potential Energy: is the energy that matter has because of its location.  Energy is used to do work.  The electrons of an atom differ in their amounts of potential energy.  An electrons state of potential energy is called its energy level or electron shell. Photosynthesis and respiration Carbon: The backbone of life Living organisms consist mostly of 70%-90% water Carbon based compounds are called organic compounds. Organic compound ---> C-C or C-H Organic Chem is the study of carbon compounds. Hydrocarbons Carbon bonded to Hydrogen Methane is CH4 Non-polar therefore hydrophobic. Insoluble in water. Functional groups connect to the carbon in place of the hydrogen. Functional Groups Connect to the carbon skeleton replacing the hydrogen. Some of them here  Hydroxyl Group ----> Alcohol  Carbonyl Group  Carboxyl Group  Amino Group C-NH2  Sulfhydryl Group  Phosphate Group  Methyl Group C-CH3 Non-polar Hydroxyl Group  C-OH  Alcohol  Polar  Forms Hydrogen bond  Hydrophilic Carbonyl Group  Aldehyde C=O (Terminal carbonyl group)  Called Aldoeses  Ketone is an internal carbonyl group  Called ketoses  C=O  Both are polar Carboxyl Group  COOH  Polar, very electronegative  When H is released produces acid.  Carboxylic acid Sulfhydryl Group  Important structure of certain proteins  C-SH  Two (SH) group can react forming a "cross-link" that helps stablize  Called Thiols Phosphate Group  Contivutes a negative charge  Compund name: organic phosphate  Releases 1 or 2 of protons: ionized & non-ionized forms  Acidic and hydrophilic  Parts of phospholipids and nucleic acids. Methyl Group  Non-polar  Affects the expression of genes  Affects the function of sex hormones  C-CH 3 The Molecules of Life Macromolecules are large complex molecules and are formed of atoms. All living things are made up of four classes of large biological molecules:  Carbohydrates  Lipids  Proteins  Nucleic Acid 5.1 Macromolcules are polymers built from monomers  Polymer: long molecules made of many similar building blocks  Building blocks are called monomers  Enzymes: Speed up chemical reactions such as those that make or break down polymers.  Three of four classes of life's organic molecules are Polymers (Lipids are not) o Carbohydrates o Proteins o Nucleic acid THE breakdown of polymers  Hydrolysis (To break with water): digestion o Breaks down polymers o Through the gain of a water molecule o Regulated by specific enzymes: Hydrolases 5.2 Carbohydrates Fuel and building material  Consist of C,H and O in approximate ratio of CH2O  Building blocks= sugars (Monosaccharides)  Carbohydrates include sugars and polymers of sugars.  Serves as fuel and building material Sugars  Monosaccharides have molecular fromulas that are usually multiples of CH2O Glucose (C^H12O6) is the most common Monosaccharide.   3 to 7 carbons + OH group + carbonyl group  Hydrophilic ----> because of polar hydroxyl/ carbonyl groups  Monosaccharides are classified by o The locations of the carbonyl group as aldose or ketose o The number of carbons in the Carbon Skeleton. Glucose: Most Common Monosaccharide  Exists in two forms of Linear and ring. (ring is more common)  Ring may close in 2 ways giving rise to alpha and beta glucose.  Isomer: Different structures with the same molecular formula.  Alpha glucose (OH in axil and is ready to and connect to other glucoses) Disaccharides  A disaccharides is formed when a dehydration reaction joins two monosaccharides.  This covalent bond is called Glycoside linkage o Maltose = Glucose + Glucose needed to make beer o Sucrose = Glucose + Fructose= Table sugar o Lactose = Glucose + Galactose = milk sugar  Lactase ----> Enzyme needed to breakdown lactose.  After infancy many people lack lactase: Lactose intolerance  In this picture we see the formation of water and connection of two glucose molecules in the result of Dehydration. Polysaccharides  Polysaccharides: the polymers of sugars  Formed by hundreds to thousands sugars  Functions in living cells.: o Storage: Starch (Plant) , Glycogen (Animal) o Structural: Cellulose, chitin  The architecture/function determined by: o Its sugar monomers o The position of its glycoside linkage Starch  Made up of alpha glucose subunits -----> plants only  The simplest starch is amylose Storage polysaccharides: Glycogen  Glycogen is a storage polysaccharides in animals.  Stored mainly in liver and muscle cells  Larger and more highly branched than plant starch Structural polysaccharides: Cellulose  Composed of components of cell walls of plants  Most abundant organic compound on earth  Composed beta glucose subunit.  Structure is very strong, difficult to hydrolyze: enzyme that unable to hydrolyze the beta linkage of cellulose.  This keeps the human digestive tracts working. Digestion of Cellulose Vs. Starch  Cellulose is very strong difficult to hydrolyze.  Enzymes that digest starch by hydrolyzing alpha linkages cant hydrolyze the beta linkage in cellulose.  We think of cellulose as a fiber: keep digestive tracts working. Structural Polysaccharides: Chitin  Chitin, found as a structural support in o The exoskeleton of arthropods ( insects, spiders, crustacens) o The cell wall of Fungi Chitin is used to make strong and flexible surgical threds. 5.3 Lipids are a diverse group of hydrophobic molecules.  Lipids: not true polymers  Hydrophobic: mostly hydrocarbons  Do not dissolve in polar solutions like water  Dissolve in non-polar solvents like chloroform  Greasy oil substance  Three important families of lipids are o Fats o Phospholipids o Steroids Fats  Most abundant lipid  1 Gram of fat contains 9 cal ( 1 gram of pure carbohydrate or pure protein contains only 4 cal)  Consists of o Glycerol ----> (Three carbon alcohol containing 3 OH groups) o One, two or three fatty acids Saturated Fatty Acids  Saturated fatty acids o Each C completely associated with H  Solid at room temperature  Most are animal fats are saturated. Fatty Acids  It has a carboxyl group  Long unbranched tail, approximately 14-22C's  Fatty acids added to glycerol called ester linkage  When three fatty acids are joined to glycerol creating a triacylglycerol or triglyceride: main storage form of fat. Unsaturated Fatty Acids  Has at least one double bond. o Monounsaturated  One double bond o Polyunsaturated  2 or more double bonds  Liquid (oil)  Most plant and fish fat are unsaturated.  Saturated fat is more insulin dependent reactions.


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