PSYC 2225 Class Notes
PSYC 2225 Class Notes PSYC 2225 02
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mishayla Waltari on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2225 02 at Idaho State University taught by Rieske in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Child Development in Psychology (PSYC) at Idaho State University.
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Date Created: 09/07/16
Nature vs. Nuture: John Locke: blank slate (tabula vasa), all knowledge is created from experience John Watson: the strongest indicator is nurture JeanJacques Rousseau: internal & external environment effect development, all humans are naturally good Continuity vs. Discontinuity (stages): Quantitative changes are continuous All developmental changes are products of nature and nurture Influences on Development: Maturation: genetically programmed changes (puberty, losing teeth) Universal Sequential Relatively impervious to environmental influence Timing of Experience: experience may be needed to trigger genetic programs Critical Periods: needs to happen immediately or won’t happen at all Imprinting (gosling hatching experiment) Sensitive Periods: time when a particular experience can be best incorporated Language development Inborn biases & constraints: preexisting conceptions/constraints on what is understood Infants can understand gravity Behavior Genetics: study of genetic contributions to individual behavior Identical & fraternal twins separated at birth Vulnerability vs. Resilience Resilience: doing well in spite of adversity Theories: Psychoanalytic Theories: behavior is governed by conscious and unconscious processes Development goes through stages Each stage focuses on a particular task or form of tension Importance of early experience Freud’s Psychosexual Theory: oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital stages Id: source of libido, immediate gratification Ego: organizes and plans, keeps in touch with reality Superego: morality, parental and societal values Erik’s Psychosocial Theory: 8 agerelated, discontinuous developmental stages Trust vs. Mistrust, Autonomy vs. Shame, Initiative vs. Guilt, Industry vs. Inferiority, Identity vs. Role, Intimacy vs. Isolation, Generativity vs. Stagnation, Ego Integrity vs. Despair Each stage is characterized by a crisis or task the individual must resolve Cognitive Theories: Piaget’s CognitiveDevelopment Theory: children actively learn about environment Active Process, Discontinuous Children go through universal stages of cognitive development Children learn many things on their own without the help of adults Children are selfmotivated and do not need outward rewards by adults Vygotsky’s Theory: cognitive development occurs through social activity Active Process, Discontinuous Children are social beings shaped by cultural contexts Zone of Proximal Development: the range of performance between what children can do unsupported and what they can do with optimal social support Informationprocessing Theories: Sensory Information—Shortterm Memory—Longterm memory Active Process, Discontinuous Learning Theories: Classical Conditioning: form of learning that associates a particular stimulus with a specific response (Little Albert) Passive role as humans, no stages, nurture Operant Conditioning: learning of voluntary behavior through the effects of pleasant and unpleasant consequences to responses Passive role as humans, nurture, no stages Thorndike’s Law of Effect: if response is positive it will be repeated, if Reinforcement: any event/stimulus that, following a response, increases the probability that the response will occur again Primary: biological need (food, water) Secondary: (money) Positive: the addition of a stimulus to increase probability Negative: taking away a stimulus to increase probability (advil) Punishment: any event/stimulus that, following a response, decreases the likelihood that the response will occur again Positive: the addition of a stimulus to decrease probability (chores) Negative: taking away a stimulus to decrease probability More Effective Punishment: Should immediately follow behavior Should be consistent Punishment of wrong behavior should be paired with reinforcement of right behavior Social Cognitive Theory: emphasis on the observation of social interactions Active role as humans, nurture, no stages Intrinsic Reinforcement: children enjoy observing and imitating others Observational Learning: learning new behavior by watching another Performance Distinction: learning can take place without actual performance Scientific Study of Child Development: Hypothesis—Sampling—Procedure—Analysis—WriteUp—Presentation/Publishing Variables: age, gender, ethnicity Reliability: (IQ test) Validity: the degree to which a test measures what it is intended to measure(scale) Can be reliable but not valid, Can NOT be valid but not reliable Cohort: group of individuals who share the same historical experiences at the same time in their lives (children born in 2000) Case Studies: indepth studies of individuals Correlational Studies: 1 (negative correlation) 0 (no correlation) 1 (positive correlation) Behaviorism: theory that behavior changes are caused by environmental influences Internal Models of Experience: theory that each child creates set of core ideas about the world, self and others with which their experiences are then filtered through Aslin’s Models of Environmental Influence: possible relationships between maturation and environment Horowitz’s Model of Vulnerability and Resilience: only a vulnerable infant in a nonfacilitated environment would result in a really poor outcome Normative AgeGraded Changes: common changes to every member of society Normative HistoryGraded Changes: changes that occur to members of a cohort NonNormative Changes: changes that result from unique events Developmental Theories: set of statements that propose general principals of development Scaffolding: term used by Bruner, process by which a teacher structures a learning encounter Eclecticism: the use of multiple theories to explain and study human development CrossSectional Design: samples from different age groups are studied at the same time Longitudinal Design: samples from one age group are studied over a long period of time Sequential Design: combines both crosssectional and longitudinal designs Process of Conception: Each woman produces one ovum per month, travels down fallopian tubes toward uterus, is shed during menstrual cycle if not fertilized Genetics of Conception: Chromosomes: 23 pairs, 23 pair determines sex Gametes: sperm and ovum, undergo mitosis, only receive 23 chromosomes during meiosis DNA is a double helix shape, can duplicate, divided into genes, genes of certain characteristics are within the same loci as others Autosomes: 22 chromosome pairs, contain exact matching genetic loci Sex Chromosomes: female: XX, male: XY, sex is determined by the sperm Patterns of Genetic Inheritance: Homozygous: egg and sperm genes carry the same instructions Heterozygous: egg and sperm genes carry different instructions Genotypes: pattern of characteristics and developmental sequences mapped in the genes Phenotypes: expression of genetic information in a specific environment Polygenic: multiple genes influence phenotypes (skin color, eye color) Multifactorial: both genes and environmental influences phenotype (height, intelligence) Twins and Siblings: Monozygotic: one fertilized ovum is separated, identical genetics Dizygotic: Two ova are released and fertilized Stages of Prenatal Development: 38 weeks of gestation Germinal Stage: conception (day 1) to implantation (day 1014) Embryotic Stage: implantation to organogenesis (weeks 38) Amnion: inner membrane Chorion: outer membrane Organogenesis: embryo’s cells differentiate, basic organ systems form, brain and spinal cord are the first things to develop (from neural tube) Fetal Stage: organogenesis until birth, longest stage Organ develop rapidly and are refined Viability: week 24, most babies could survive outside the womb (lung and brain development) The Fetal Brain: most brain formation takes place during fetal stage Weeks 1018: neural formation picks up pace Weeks 1321: neural migration Form Synapses: Axon—Dendrites –Glial Cells Weeks 48: males begin to secrete testosterone from testes Girls: slightly faster skeletal development Boys: more vulnerable to prenatal problems, slightly more active before birth Fetuses respond to sound as early at 25 weeks Can distinguish familiar and novel stimuli by 32 weeks Cat in the Hat Experiment: read story out lout the last 6 weeks of pregnancy, special binky, infants learning to suck in order to listen to familiar story Teratogens: substances that can cause damage to an embryo, first 8 weeks (embryonic) most vulnerable DoseResponse Relationship: amount and length of exposure Sleeper Effects: teratogen effects show up later in life Smoking: low birth weight, increase risk of health problems, longterm effects of cognitive and social development Alcohol: FAS, low birth weight, small brains, heart defects, physical deformities Cocaine: pregnancy complications Marijuana and Heroin: interferes with growth, brain development, learning disabilities Overthecounter medications, diet and malnutrition, subnutrition: barley adequate Maternal Diseases: Rubella, HIV, STDs, Chronic Illness Other Factors: Age: women over 35 higher risks of pregnancy complications Stress: low birth weight and later problems Poverty: poor prenatal care, low birth weight, stillborn, earlier pregnancies Labor and Early Infancy: Drugs During Labor: all drugs pass through the placenta and enter the fetus’ blood stream Systemic analgesics: pain relieving, no loss of consciousness Local anesthetics: cause numbness in small area Regional analgesics (Epidural): complete loss of sensation below the injection site General anesthesia: relieves pain and induces unconsciousness, emergency Natural Birth: Lamaze: psychological methods to distract from the pain Location of Birth: hospital, home Hospital: 95% currently, 5% during the 1920’s Presence of Others: When fathers are present, less pain, less complications, less requests for medication Stages of Labor: Stage 1: 1 to 20 hours Latent: contractions far apart, dilation of cervix, effacement: flattening of cervix Active: cervix opens from 4 to 8cm, contractions closer and more intense Transition: cervix opens from 8 to 10cm, contractions most intense Stage 2: cervix is fully dilated, delivery begins, cervix—birth canal—world, 50 min for first time, 20 min for later children Stage 3: delivery of afterbirth, placenta is detached and expelled, uterus shrinks back Cesarean Delivery: fetal distress, breached position, large fetus, maternal health concerns, 30% Birth Complications: Anoxia: insufficiency of oxygen, failure of umbilical circulation Dislocations of hips and shoulders, fractures, nerve compression: temporary paralysis Low Birth Weight: less than 5.5lbs, 2/33/4 develop normally, Preterm: born before 38 weeks, less developed lungs, lack surfactant Assessing the Newborn: Apgar Score: accessed at birth and 5 minutes after 3 or lower: critical condition 46: indicates assistance 710: no danger Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment: scored individually, not total score Reflexes, muscle tone, alertness, cuddliness, ability to selfsooth Behavior in Early Infancy: Reflexes: involuntary physical responses triggered by specific stimuli Adaptive Reflexes: essential to survival, gradually disappear over the first year (rooting) Primitive Reflexes: neurological, controlled by medulla and midbrain Zelazo (1972): stimulated walking reflex at 28 weeks—learned to walk sooner Dynamics System Theory: many factors interact to affect development Sleep Patterns: Behavior States: deep sleep—lighter sleep—fussing—alert, repeats every 2 hours Sleep about 2/3 of the day 68 weeks: day/night sleep patterns emerge (circadian rhythm) 6 months: nighttime sleep with daytime naps Crying: 211% of the time, 23 hours a day at 6 weeks, 1 hour a day at 3 months Colic: 1520% of infants, intense, 3+ hours a day
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