PSY 2410 Week 1-3 Notes
PSY 2410 Week 1-3 Notes PSY 2410-101
Popular in Child & Adolescent Psychology
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Nichter on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 2410-101 at Ohio University taught by Dr. Michael Grant in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Child & Adolescent Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Ohio University.
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Date Created: 09/07/16
Chapter 1 Mean age mothers is 25.8 1/3 of births are C-section Life expectancy vs Life span Expectancy – 78.7 years Span – 122 years (woman) Women outlive men generally 1/3 of women born today can expect to live to 100 Health & wellbeing of children Nutrition If a baby loses 13% of their body weight after birth, they are ordered back to the hospital Special programs & laws Food stamps, child services, etc. Stressors EXPOSURE TO VIOLENCE Poor housing, excessive noise Gender ID Parents are now being taught to show their kids traits of the opposite sex Crying, competitivity, etc. Early views on children Original sin view Born as evil beings Tabula Rosa view Children are a blank state Innate goddess Children are born innately good Developmental processes Biological Height, weight, motor skills Cognitive Intelligence, memory, vocab Socioemotional How children interact, relationships Developmental periods Prenatal – conception to birth Infancy – birth to 2 years Early childhood – 2 to 6 years If someone is not financially independent -> emerging adult Social Age – ex: financially independent Psychological age – cope w stress & relationships Chronological age – years & months Biological age – your body system’s age Epigenetics Our experiences may affect our DNA DNA is not completely our destiny Core issues in development Nature & nurture They’re both very important to make traits Transactional model: development occurs b/c of humans & environment Critical periods & plasticity Some things must occur at a certain period BUT b/c of plasticity, they can catch up Continuity vs discontinuity Discontinuity is based on stages – must accomplish something in order to go on to the next stage Long stages w rapid transition ex: poverty having a long term effect Universality & specificity Developmental processes the same across cultures & more specific to place & time Age graded changes – puberty History graded changes – born in great depression, veterans, etc. Non normative changes – unexpected (divorce, cancer, lottery, etc.) Activity & passivity Actively influence their own course & passive products of other forces Multifinality vs Equifinality Multifinality: One gene influences more than 1 trait Equifinality Multiple causes influence one trait Longitudinality is essential in experiments Watch the same people over time develop, rather than different groups of different ages Help us examine the interindividual (b/w people) differences of intraindividual (within a person) change Theories of child development Psychoanalytic theory Development is unconscious Freud’s personality theory Id – instincts, unconscious, urges *pleasure principal Ego – ex: toilet training, social norms *reality principal Super ego- *morality principal Freud’s Psychosexual theory Oral – pleasure solely on mouth Crying, eating, chewing Anal – toilet training Phallic – pleasure around genitals & self-manipulations Oedipus complex Child seeks affection of opposite sex parent Latency – repress sexuality to develop social & intellectual skills Genital – intimate relationships Erickson’s Psychosocial Theory Eight stages of development 1 year – trust vs mistrust trust w minimal amount of fear 1-3 years - Autonomy vs shame & doubt Assert their independence Develop a sense of shame if punished too harshly Preschool years - 4-6 years – initiative vs guilt assume responsibilities too much guilt could arise if punished too harshly Elementary school years – Industry vs inferiority Mastering knowledge Children can develop a sense of inferiority during these years Adolescence – Identity vs identity confusion Exploring roles Parents may push an identity on a child Adulthood – Generativity vs stagnation The will to give back or focus on yourself in selfish way Maturity – Integrity vs despair Looking back on your life Piaget’s four stages of development Formal operational stage Think in abstract & more logical terms Concrete operational stage Perform operations Logical reasons replace intuitive Preoperational stage Represent world with words, images, drawing Sensorimotor stage Coordinate sensory experiences w physical actions Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Cognitive theory Emphasizes how culture and social interaction guide cognitive development Social interaction with more skills adults & peers makes cognitive development advance Bandura’s Social cognitive model Behavior, Environment & Cognitive skills matter In triangle Bronfenbrenner’s Environmental Theory Development influenced by 5 environmental systems Microsystem Family, neighborhood, school, friends Mesosystem Interaction of 2 or more microsystems Ex: parent- teacher conference Exosystem Friends of family, media Macrosystem Attitudes & ideologies of your family Chronosystem The essence of time, everything occurs across your life Chapter 2 – Biological Beginnings DNA Genes Chromosomes – XX = FEMALE XY = MALE DNA Sugar phosphate backbone 4 bases Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, Guanine Genes Segments of DNA Blueprint for cells to reproduce & manufacture proteins DNA –(transcription)> mRNA –(translation)> Protein Chromosomes Made of thousands of genes Come in 23 pairs 46 chromosomes per person generally – 23 from mom, 23 from dad thousands of genes on one single chromosome an extra chromosome is better than 1 less Karyotype Chromosomal display of a cell (46, XY) is normal for male; (46, XX) is normal for girls 47 = trisomy 45 = monosomy Idiogram Drawing of chromosomes Like karyotype but more organized Genotype An individual’s genetic material Defined by allele status AA, Aa, aa Phenotype Physical traits Psychological traits Polygenic inheritance Many genes influence 1 trait Quantitative genetics Additive effect of the numerous genes that explain the individual differences trait Epistasis: (GxG) gene by gene interacting Pleiotropy: one gene influencing more than 1 trait GxE: gene by environment interaction – genetic sensitivity to the environment (nature vs nurture) Molecular genetics – we know where all the genes are Human genome project Down Syndrome Extra 21 Round face Protruding tongue Short limbs Slow development of motor & mental abilities Short height Average IQ is 55-70; average is 100 in normal humans Now living much longer lives than in the past Into their 50s Because of this, more likely for leukemia or alzheimers 40% have cardiovascular problems
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