Do et Des: The Social Bonds Of Reciprocity (Part II)
Do et Des: The Social Bonds Of Reciprocity (Part II) ANTH 1002
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Estefania Notetaker on Friday March 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 1002 at George Washington University taught by Sarah Wagner in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 149 views. For similar materials see Introductions to Sociocultural Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 03/27/15
Do et Des The Social Bonds 0f Reciprocity Part 11 March 4 2015 Guest lecturer 1 Quick review what is potlatch o 1981 survey in line The most important of philosophers 9Levis Strauss Durkheim I French Sociological Lineage I To understand Levis Strauss in uence one has to understand both Durkheim and Mauss o Durkheim How do societies stay together I Two kids of solidarity 0 Mechanical solidarity all people in some communities are very similar like in huntergathering Organic solidarity solidarity that comes from differentiation 0 Organic like the body having many parts that are different but compose a single organism I Collective consciousness The body of beliefs and sentiments common to the average of the members of a society It has concrete existence and has power over individuals to adhere to it Hard to be part of society if one does not adhere share the collective conscious Collective consciousness 9 helped create those bonds of solidarity or which came first social categories or mental faculty to create or apprehend them 0 Mauss What are the processes for social cohesion Reciprocity I Durkheim s nephew took the ideas of Durkheim I How can we explain the extraordinary e ortpe0ple put into giving what appear to be voluntary gifts I Why did selfsufficient groups spend so much time and e ort exchanging gifts with other groups I Kula valuables 9 Canoeing between islands at extraordinary dangers and efforts to make objects that had not economic value Sustainable communities that where going out to trade items They didn t need those items Durkheim and Mauss it wasn t the monetary value but social value 9 solidifies exchanges and creates social bonds 0 Mauss perspective I Rejected liberal economic theory of his day logical economics I Rejected his uncles metaphysics symbolic I Steered a course between these two perspectives Exchange more than objects and more than symbols 0 Empirical reality in anthropological study o Mauss s two main contributions I Exchange involve more than good and services people and symbols Almost very life crisis involves exchanges of material goods birth puberty marriage death I Empirical method in ethnographic research 2 Exchange and reciprocity maori taonga and the spirit of the hau Pg 11 o What is tonga I The actual object o What is hau Pgs 812 I Person to person I The spirit of the gift I Symbolic nature I Connection to original giver o How does hau work in the giving of a Tonga o Moari example of Toanga and Hau illustrates the very complex system in which I The object is not valuable in itself but for it represents symbolically I The object is both desirable and dangerous I Therefore the object has to circulate and not be kept I This circulation signifies honor and power the higher up the circulation the more honor and power I Finally the more you give and the more you receive and the more respected you are 0 With the example of the North American potlatch Mauss sets yia famous triadobligation to give reeive reciprocate o In his conclusion reharding general sociology and moralityquot mauss introduces the notion og a total social fcats I the fcats that we have studiedrather concern the individualquot Pg 78 0 Gift 9 semantic value I English present I German poison Since it obliges you to an exchange It creates an obligation that creates something powerful socially Danish and Swedish married I How are these three definitions of the same sound related What you give has semantic value 9 You give your parents gifts that are better than the ones they gives you because it shows the nature of the relationship 0 Pg 3943 0 Give as much as you take all shall be very wellquot Maori Proverb 0 Elementary Forms of Kinship Levi Strauss 3 Glossary Incest Taboo Mauss exogamic principle lt forces you to marry out of your family Sister Exchange My sister marries him and I marry his sister It doesn t have to be an actually sister but someone you classify system Symmetrical Patrilateral crosscousin marriage Everyone is marrying father sister s daughter You give a wife and then they give wives 0 Symmetry between wife givers Asymmetrical Matrilateral crosscousin marriage 9 preferred form in the world o maori taonga o hau
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