BY283 Week 3 Tuesday notes
BY283 Week 3 Tuesday notes 283
Jacksonville State University
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaylynn Riley Williams on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 283 at Jacksonville State University taught by Richard Watkins in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Health Microbiology in Biology at Jacksonville State University.
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Date Created: 09/07/16
● Central Dogma of Molecular Biology (slide 86) ○ DNA codes for RNA ■ Transcription ○ RNA codes for protein ■ Translation ○ Or… DNA -> RNA -> Protein ● Converting a gene to an RNA (91) ○ Transcription: the process that makes RNA from a strand of DNA ■ The RNA is complementary ● RNA types in protein synthesis ○ Messenger RNA (mRNA) - contains info transcribed from DNA ○ Ribosomal RNA ○ Transfer RNA (tRNA) - delivers amino acids to ribosomes ● Converting mRNA to protein (95) ○ Translation: the information carried by mRNA is decoded into a sequence of amino acids, resulting in a polypeptide chain that folds into a protein ○ mRNA is translated into protein ■ rRNA and tRNA translate the sequence of base triplets in mRNA into a sequence of amino acids ● Base Pairing ○ Complementary: agrees with the other strand following the base pairing rules ● rRNA and tRNA - the Translators ○ tRNAs deliver amino acids to ribosomes ○ tRNA has an anticodon complementary to an mRNA codon, and a binding site for the amino acid specified by that codon ● Ribosomes (110) ○ Ribosomes have 2 subunits, these combine when a mRNA is available ○ The ribosomes are made of proteins and rRNA, and they have multiple binding sites for mRNA and tRNA Prokaryotic Genomes (124) ● Nucleoid (125) ○ Prokaryotes pack DNA and associated protein and RNA as one or ○ A typical prokaryotic chromosome consists of a circular molecule of DNA localized in a region of the cytoplasm called the nucleoid ○ Do NOT confuse with other nucleo- terms ○ Bacterial genomes are typically circular in nature - will be on test!! ● Bacterial chromosomes ○ The chromosome is usually circular ○ The term CCC - covalently closed circular is used to describe this ○ Bacterial chromosomal DNA is folded into loops that are 50,000- 100,000 bp long Prokaryotic genomes compared to eukaryotic ones (132) ● Major differences: (skip #3) ○ 1) Structure ■ Eukaryotic cells have linear chromosome; prokaryotic are circular ■ The bacterial chromosome contains genetic info essential for the continuous survival of the organism ■ Bacteria can have more than one chromosome ○ 2) Location ■ Prokaryotes locate DNA in a large central mass called the nucleoid ■ Eukaryotes are in nucleus ○ 4) Introns/ Exons (Bacteria) ■ Bacteria genes are all coding - there in not alternating stretches of coding and noncoding in the same gene ■ Bacteria do not have introns or exons ○ 5) Size (in megabases) ■ Bacteria have fewer bases in their genomes ■ Bacteria: 3-5 megabases (MBp) ■ Ex: E.coli - 4.7 MBp ■ Ex: Homans: 6,000 MBp ● Similarities (141) ○ Plasmids (circular DNA) ■ Circular pieces of DNA that is not the main chromosome ■ Plasmids contain only genetic information that could be helpful to organisms, but that they could survive without ■ Found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes ● Plastids and Mitochondria (mtDNA) - in eukaryotes ○ DNA/RNA structure ○ Transcription and Translation ■ Central dogma of molecular biology ● DNA replication (145) ○ Overall replication process is semiconservative replication ○ Careful orchestration of the actions of 30 different enzymes ○ Separate the strands of the existing DNA molecule, copying one stand and producing
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