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Biology 243 Chapter 1 Notes

by: Karla Kristo

Biology 243 Chapter 1 Notes BIOL 243

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Karla Kristo

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The Human Body Orientation Part A
Human Anatomy and Physiology I
Lewis Bowman
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Karla Kristo on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 243 at University of South Carolina taught by Lewis Bowman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I in Biology at University of South Carolina.

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Date Created: 09/07/16
Chapter 1: The Human Body: An Orientation: Part A Physiology  Function of part Anatomy  Structure of body parts 1. Gross (large) see with naked eye 2. Microscopic anatomy a. Histology – tissue b. Cytology – cells 3. Systemic – anatomy of body systems Levels of organization 1. Chemical a. Atoms (smallest part of typical element) b. Molecules (two or more atoms joined together) c. Proteins d. Nucleic acids (genetic material) e. Lipids (fats help form membranes) f. Carbohydrates (energy) 2. Cell  basic unit of organization in living things a. Virus (not living, made of nucleic acids) must affect a cell, go inside and use cellular machinery to replicate nucleic acids and divide and grow 3. Tissues  group of cells a. Epitheal (cover body surface, line cavities and tubes) b. Muscular (muscle cells, ability to contract) c. Nervous (brain, spinal cord, nerves) d. Connective (bone, cartilage, holds together or support) 4. Organs  two or more tissues joined together (ex. Stomach lined with epethial tissue, has muscular tissue to contract, nerves supply stomach) a. Function 5. Body systems  organ systems a. Two or more organs Maintenance of Life 1. Boundaries 2. Movement 3. Responsiveness (senses change in the environment through nerves) 4. Digestion (breaking down of food into simple molecules) 5. Metabolism (all chemical reactions in body) 6. Excretion 7. Reproduction Homeostasis  used to create stable internal conditions such as body temp.  Dynamic range  Nervous system (fast acting)  Endocrine system (slower acting) Control system Control center Afferent pathway  Efferent pathway Receptor sensor Effector  Heat Stimulus   Negative feedback o Response reduction effect of stimulus (keeps things the same)  Glucose levels are elevated then pancreases will secrete insulin and will increase uptake of glucose by cell  Glucose levels are decreased then glucagon is released by pancreas and will release glucose Positive feedback Enhances or amplify signal Occurs infrequently Blood clotting Child birth (pressure on cervix from babies head and contraction of uterus – release of oxytocin (more contraction) Chapter 1 (cont.) Anatomical position  default position; palms out Prone  face down Supine  face up Superior (cranial)  towards the head end or upper part Inferior (Caudal)  away from the head end Ventral (anterior)  toward or at the front of the body Dorsal (posterior)  toward or at the back of the body Proximal  towards upper part of body Distal  towards lower part of body Body Planes: Sagittal  separate bodies into left and right parts Mid-sagittal  separate bodies into equal left and right parts Frontal  Divide body into anterior and posterior parts Transverse plane  divide body into superior and inferior parts Body Cavities:  Dorsal body cavity (towards back) Cranial  brain Vertebral  spinal cord  Ventral body cavity (towards front) Thoracic  chest Pleural  lungs Mediastinum  pericardial houses the heart Superior mediastinum  large blood vessels Abdominal pelvic cavity   Diaphragm separates


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