New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

CH101 Chapters 1 and 2

by: Lauren Dutch

CH101 Chapters 1 and 2 CH 101

Lauren Dutch
GPA 4.0
View Full Document for 0 Karma

View Full Document


Unlock These Notes for FREE

Enter your email below and we will instantly email you these Notes for General Chemistry

(Limited time offer)

Unlock Notes

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Unlock FREE Class Notes

Enter your email below to receive General Chemistry notes

Everyone needs better class notes. Enter your email and we will send you notes for this class for free.

Unlock FREE notes

About this Document

These are the class notes from chapters 1 and 2. Professor Nikles is all over the place as I'm sure y'all know, so I went back and synthesized his lecture notes with information from the book.
General Chemistry
Dave Nikles
Class Notes




Popular in General Chemistry

Popular in Chemistry

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Dutch on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CH 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dave Nikles in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 216 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry in Chemistry at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.

Similar to CH 101 at UA


Reviews for CH101 Chapters 1 and 2


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/07/16
CH101 Sections 1.5-1.9 (scroll to next page) I. Modern Atomic Theory and Its Laws A. Law of Conservation of Mass- In a chemical reaction, matter is neither created nor destroyed. B. Law of Definite Proportions- All samples of a given compound, regardless of how they were made, have the same proportions of their constituent elements. C. Law of Multiple Proportions- When two elements A and B form two different compounds, the masses of element B that combine with 1g of element A can be expressed as a ratio of a small whole numbers. II. Discovery of Electron A. J.J. Thomson’s Cathode Rays 1. Cathode rays travel through a glass cathode ray tube away from the negative cathode towards the positive anode. 2. Discovery of a negatively charged, low mass particle present in all atoms called the electron B. Millikan’s Oil Drop Experiment 1. Calculated charge on oil droplets falling in and electric field 2. Discovered that the charge on an electron is -1.60x10^-19 C. Ernest Rutherford’s Gold Foil Experiment 1. Bombarded thin gold foil with positive particles a) Most passed through but some were deflected b) Denounced the plum pudding model that an atom is a positive sphere with negative electrons in it 2. Discovered the structure of the atom and explained it with the nuclear theory a) Most of the atom’s mass and all of its positive charge is contained in the nucleus b) Most of the volume is empty space, where the tiny negative electrons are found c) There are the same number of protons in nucleus and electrons outside the nucleus so the atom is neutrally charged III. Nuclear Model A. Almost all mass resides in the nucleus 1. Number of protons determines the atomic number 2. Protons and neutrons determine atomic mass (amu) 3. Isotopes have same atomic number (number of protons) but different atomic masses (different number of neutrons) a) Carbon-14 is an isotope of carbon. There are still 6 protons but there are two extra neutrons. 4. An element’s atomic mass is calculated by adding together all the different isotopes masses times their abundance a) Chlorine has two naturally occurring isotopes. Chlorine-35 has a mass of 34.97 amu and an abundance of 75.77%. Chlorine-37 has a mass of 36.97 amu and an abundance of 24.23%. (1) Atomic mass= 0.7577(34.97amu) + 0.2423(36.97amu) = 35.45amu B. Mass spectrometry calculates the mass of isotopes and their abundances by separating particles according to mass 1. Creates a mass spectrum a) X axis indicates mass b) Y axis indicates relative abundance c) Mass spectrum of chlorine CH101 Chapter 2 I. Scientific Measurements A. Accuracy- how close you are to a true or accepted value B. Precision- reproducibility of a measurement C. Resolution- distinguishing parts of an object D. Significant figures 1. Multiplication and division- answer with the lowest number of sig figs from the problem a) Example: 2.5 * 3.42=8.6 2. Addition and subtraction- answer with lowest number of decimal places from the problem a) 34.56-5.4=29.2 E. Must have a value AND a unit 1. SI unit of length is the meter (m) 2. Prefixes a) Macroscale- human eye can see unaided b) Microscale- need an optical microscope to see c) Nanoscale- need an electron microscope to see II. Converting between moles and atoms A. Avogadro’s number: 1 mol=6.022x10^23 atoms B. 1 mole of an element equals the amu of that element in grams C. Example: Calcuate the number of carbon atoms in a 0.035 gram pencil lead. 0.035 g C (1 mol C / 12.01 g C) (6.022x10^23 atoms C / 1 mol C) = 1.75 atoms C Grams and moles cancel out, leaving atoms


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

0 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.