US History Chapter 18
US History Chapter 18 HIST 2112 - US History Since Reconstruction of 1878
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Susan Miller on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2112 - US History Since Reconstruction of 1878 at Kennesaw State University taught by Dr. William Price in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see History 2112 in History at Kennesaw State University.
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Date Created: 09/07/16
US History Since 1877 Chapter 18 The New South and the New West I. The Myth of the New South A. Textile Mills 1. Number grew dramatically after Civil War 2. Workers a) 70% under 21 b) Women and children outnumbered men B. The Tobacco Industry 1. American Tobacco Company a) Formed by James Buchanan Duke (1) Made up of competitors who couldn’t keep up with him b) Controlled 90% of the nation’s cigarette production C. Other New South Industries 1. Coal a) 5 million tons (1875) to 49 million tons (by 1900) 2. Lumber a) Urbanization and population growth = greater need for housing D. The Redeemers 1. Conservative, pro-business, white Democrats a) Wanted industrial progress with white supremacy b) Supposedly “redeemed” South from Yankee or black rule during Reconstruction 2. Taxes a) Wanted to cut state taxes and spending b) Cut public school funding (1) Didn’t want educated blacks II. The Failings of the New South A. Southern Poverty 1. Decline in crop prices a) More difficult to own and buy land 2. By 1900, 70% of farmers did not own the land on which they worked B. The Crop-Lien System 1. Few southern banks after war a) Farmers had to operate without cash b) Adopted barter economy (1) Merchant provides food, clothing, seed (2) Farmer gives share of crop 2. Three categories a) Small farm owners (1) Even though they owned, they still had to barter b) Sharecroppers (1) Mostly blacks, worked land in exchange for crop portion (2) Usually worked for same farm on which they had been enslaved c) Share Tenants (1) Mostly white farmers, owned maybe a mule but still needed to rent land (2) Usually paid rent in pledged crop share 3. Self-Destructive a) Only planted cash crops: had to buy all food b) Overplanting: infertile soil c) Was a version of economic slavery for blacks and poor whites C. Falling Cotton Prices 1. Production soared, prices fell 2. 1870s: 11.77 c/lb., 1880s: 10.44 c/lb., 1896: 7.72 c/lb. 3. 11% southern whites illiterate 4. Annual income 1/2 non-southerners III. Race Relations during the 1890s A. Disfranchising African Americans 1. Mississippi Plan a) Series of state constitutional amendments in 1890s b) Residence requirement for voting (1) Aimed at tenant farmers who moved frequently c) Disqualified from voting if had committed certain crimes d) Must have paid all taxes on time (including poll tax) e) Must be able to read/understand Constitution 2. Louisiana’s Grandfather Clause a) Allowed illiterate whites to vote if their fathers or grandfathers had been eligible to vote on January 1, 1867 b) Clause used in GA, NC, VA, AL, OK by 1910 B. The Spread of Segregation 1. Plessy vs. Ferguson (1896) a) Homer Plessy, 1/8 African, refused to leave white car, convicted of breaking the law 2. 1896 Supreme Court: “states have the right to pass segregation laws” 3. “Separate but Equal” & Jim Crow Laws a) 188 racial lynchings per year on average, 82% in South (1) Seen as entertainment by whites C. Mob Rule in North Carolina 1. Wilmington, NC 2. Majority black voters elected African Americans to some political offices a) 2,000 whites stormed the city (1) 100 blacks shot and killed (2) Destroyed black-owned businesses (3) Forced leaders to board north-bound trains 3. Self-appointed white government a) Issued “Declaration of White Independence” b) Stripped blacks of voting rights and jobs D. The Black Response 1. Ida B. Wells a) First African American to sue rail company because she was denied a seat (1) Circuit court said yes, TN Supreme Court said heck no b) Became editor of Memphis Free Speech (1) Spoke out against lynching and other issues c) Helped found the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1909 and worked for women’s suffrage 2. Booker T. Washington a) Became President of the new Tuskegee Institute at age 25 b) Advocated self-improvement rather than social change c) Wanted blacks to become economically self-sufficient before they focused on civil rights d) Unknown to others, Washington secretly worked against disfranchisement, lynching, and to increase school funding (1) Feared public activism would trigger violence against Tuskegee 3. W. E. B. Du Bois a) Washington’s foremost rival b) First African American to earn a doctoral degree from Harvard (1) Authored more than 20 books c) The Atlanta Compromise (1) Du Bois’ name for Washington’s celebrated 1895 speech (2) Wanted blacks to adopt strategy of “ceaseless agitation” directed at the right to vote and winning civil equality IV. The Settling of the New West A. The Western Landscape 1. It sucks to live in the Great Plains 2. Which means it’s the perfect place for the Indians 3. Actually someone found gold so now the whites want it back B. The Migratory Stream 1. Largest number of foreign immigrants from Canada and Northern Europe 2. Less numerous from China and Mexico, still significant a) Chinese frequently discriminated against, denied rights, became scapegoats b) 1882: Chinese Exclusion Act C. The African American Migration 1. Exodusters: southern blacks migrating West in search equality 2. Loss of Labor a) Whites feared that they would have no more cheap labor b) Threatened to sink boats in the Mississippi carrying blacks 3. Failure a) Unprepared for harsh conditions b) Homesteads not self-sustaining c) Lack of resources D. Western Mining 1. Shift from individual prospectors to industrial miners 2. Environmental Danger a) Hydraulic cannons flushed rock and soil into streams b) Killed fish, flooded farmland c) Mining companies controlled votes so efforts to stop the damage rarely worked 3. Woodruff vs. North Bloomfield Gravel Mining Company a) First major environmental legal victory in the nation b) Hydraulic mining ceased E. Mining Boomtowns 1. Male dominated communities, large immigrant populations 2. Deserted after the mines were depleted 3. Comstock Lode a) Near Gold Hill, Nevada b) Most profitable mine in history to that point 4. Statehood a) Disputes within Congress over creating states that favored the opposite party V. Life in the New West A. The Cattle Boom 1. Railroads made it possible to herd cattle to a station and ship the animals to the East and North to be slaughtered and distributed 2. Invention of barbed wire a) Elimination open range, which had been owned by all b) Put ranchers and cowboys out of business, no longer needed to herd cattle B. Chicago 1. Fastest growing city in the nation a) Gateway to the western economy 2. Slaughterhouses a) Mostly hogs b) Used ice from Lake Michigan in the winter and refrigerated rail cars once they were invented c) Drove butchers out of business C. Homesteaders 1. Homestead Act (1862) meant land was virtually free 2. Challenges a) Interest rates very high b) Declining crop prices c) Land resisted planting d) Constantly battled nature D. Commercial Farming 1. “Bonanza Farms” a) Owned by wealthy capitalists b) Wheat became the cotton of the West (1) Spurred economic growth c) Beat out small farmers E. Women in the West 1. High male to female ratio a) Women valued as housecleaners and spouses 2. Faced legal barriers a) Couldn’t sell land without husband’s approval b) Couldn’t sue except for divorce c) Couldn’t serve on juries, act as lawyers, or witness a will 3. More equal than in the East a) Became more independent due to the hard life style b) Sometimes assumed control of farms if their husband died c) New states were the first to allow women to vote and hold office (in the hopes that more women settlers would move west) VI. The Fate of Western Indians A. Indian Relations in the West 1. Indian Wars a) Land agreements violated by settlers and farmers b) Government gave the land that had been promised to the Indians “forever” to settlers c) 1862: 664 whites killed in Minnesota Valley B. The Sand Creek Massacre 1. Indians murdered a white family in Colorado a) Governor told whites to “kill and destroy” the Indians b) Same dude told Indians to gather in safe places (ex. Fort Lyon), promised protection 2. The whites broke the promise a) November 29,1864: 700 militia, led by Colonel John Chivington, attacked a Cheyenne and Arapahoe camp b) Indians waved American and white flags c) 165 peaceful Indians killed 3. The truth came out a) A captain who had disobeyed the order to attack detailed the event to a superior officer b) Congress and the army launched an investigation c) Chivington resigned 4. Aftermath a) Started years of warring with the two Indian groups C. Indian Relocation 1. Indian Peace Commission a) Created by Congress to remove causes of Indian wars b) Decided that moving them and teaching them to farm would civilize them c) Government had no choice but to take control of the region D. Grant’s Indian Policy 1. Supported Indian rights a) Thought they would be peaceful if left alone b) Thought they deserved citizenship and full citizen rights c) Urged his troops to support peace (1) Some generals disagreed (2) Thought President Grant’s distance from the Great Plains shaped his outlook E. Custer and the Sioux 1. Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer a) Led 1,000 soldiers into Black Hills and announced that he found gold (1) Triggered massive gold rush and an influx of whites (2) Miners violated Indian treaties b) Graduated last of his class at West Point, goal was to gain glory, loved war 2. The Great Sioux War a) Lasted 15 months in Wyoming, Montana, South Dakota, and Nebraska b) The Battle of Little Big Horn (1) Custer attacked Indian camp (2) Severely outnumbered (3) Indians led by Crazy Horse, their chief (4) All whites were killed, including Custer c) Troops dispatched 3. Remaining Indians forced onto reservations, where many died of disease or starvation 4. By 1876, the Black Hills Indians sold their land and Crazy Horse and his people surrendered F. The Demise of the Buffalo 1. Contributed to collapse of Indian resistance 2. Influx of white commercial hunters after the construction of the railroads a) Hides were in high demand b) Average hunter killed 100 per day 3. Prolonged drought (1880s – 1890s) 4. Competition with wild horses G. The Last Resistance 1. The Ghost Dance movement a) A ceremonial dance that the Indians believed would make them bullet-proof b) Spread rapidly and alarmed whites 2. The Battle of Wounded Knee a) December 1890, nervous soldiers fired into group of Indians who had surrendered b) Battle killed 200 Indians, 25 soldiers H. Recognition 1. A Century of Dishonor (1881) a) Novel by Helen Hunt Jackson b) Detailed Native American exploitation 2. President Rutherford B. Hayes acknowledged that most of the issues were caused by broken promises and injustice on the part of the United States 3. Dawes Severalty Act a) Divided tribal lands and allotted them to individuals b) 160 acres to each head of family VII. The End of the Frontier A. Frederick Jackson Turner 1. Young historian 2. Announced his “frontier thesis” in 1893 a) The taming and settling the frontier had shaped the national character in fundamental ways b) Focused on heroism and triumph c) Downplayed greed, exploitation, and failure d) Virtually ignored the roles of women, African Americans, Native Americans, Hispanics, and Asians B. Discontented Farmers 1. Many homesteaders became migrant workers a) Forced out of their farms by new machinery b) Often treated just as badly as white and black sharecroppers 2. Many joined the People’s party a) Aka Populists b) Wanted to “restore the Government… to the hands of the ‘plain people’ with whom it originated”
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