Week 1 and Week 2 Notes
Week 1 and Week 2 Notes POLS 241
Popular in Comparative Government and Politics (GT-SS1)
Popular in Political Science
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dori DeBrum on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POLS 241 at Colorado State University taught by Marcela Velasco in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Comparative Government and Politics (GT-SS1) in Political Science at Colorado State University.
Reviews for Week 1 and Week 2 Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/07/16
Week 1 1. Core Concepts in Comparative Politics a. Politics i. The struggle in any group for power that will give one or more persons the ability to make decisions for the larger group ii. Occurs in the public sphere public affair iii. A lot of struggle and competition iv. Done through violence b. Government i. People and institutions that have the legal authority to design and direct public policies, and to make authoritative decisions ii. Main unit of study for political scientists iii. People are expected to follow rules and guidelines made by govt. c. Power i. The ability to influence others or impose one's will on them d. Institutions i. Organizations or activities that are self-perpetuating and valued for their own sake ii. Activities: can be written or non-written 2. The Comparative Method: Finding causal relationships and testing theories a. Inductive Reasoning: Cases --> generate hypothesis b. Deductive Reasoning: Generate hypothesis --> cases 3. Political scientists are limited in their use od the comparative method by difficulties in controlling variables, a limited numbers of comparable cases, and difficulties in gathering information across cases 4. Elite interviews: interviews with significant powerful figures 5. Comparative Methods: The challenges a. Difficult to control variables b. Multicausality c. Endogeneity: correlation between two variables, but is unsure which variable is causing which d. Data-gathering limitations e. Areas studies overemphasize Europe f. Selection bias: choose cases based on outcome and be objective 6. Classification of governments: a. Democratic: Public has a role in decision-making i. Rights and freedoms are generally protected b. Hybrid/traditional: increasing public role in decision-making i. committed to maximizing rights and freedoms c. Authoritarian: Public's participation in govt. limited i. rights and freedoms are limited 7. High Freedom Anarchism Liberalism High Equality Social Democracy Low Equality Communism Fascism Low Freedom Week 2 1. Comparative politics is most likely to be concerned with elections 2. A World of States a. Considered a new political institution b. reflect concentrated authority and claimed territory c. States: perceived on a national level (do not confuse with sub-states) d. state is comprised of many institutions that contribute to the apparatus of the state: i. Government, schools, police force, army, ect… e. Have territorial sovereignty f. Westphalia 1964 treaty-birth of the states i. Bundled authority and rules within a specific territory ii. One monarch with one set of rules iii. Develops into modern structure of states 3. Physical Evidence of States (or centralization of power) a. Amount of power 4. Symbolic Evidence of the State a. Flags reflect a typical, patriotic history (Colors of flag) i. shaping who we are and our beliefs ii. Reflect social dynamics iii. Sense of patriotism b. Language i. Can be considered state policy 5. Most of the world is a claimed state, with establishment 6. Political scientists, based on the work of Max weber, define 'states' as an organization that maintains a monopoly of violence over a territory a. Maintaining violence gives authority, in which it becomes centralized so states can get their way b. Respect authority because it is legitimate c. Defend state, people 7. State: institutionalized authority in a country a. Characteristics of states i. Authority: citizens generally accept that states and their leaders have the right to issue rules Religious organizations, social movements, and interest groups: have rules and guideline but only apply to few ii. Sovereignty: states can issue rules without much interference from competitors, external or internal iii. By definition, states have A monopoly on force Recognized rights that other organizations don't have 8. Twelfth Century Europe (pre-state times) a. Empires and emirates and principalities claiming power and authority b. Diversity of institutions, variety of political units with no evidence of effective central government c. Overlapping authority 9. Review a. State: institutionalized authority in a country b. Main form of political organization since the 17th century i. In Europe, but expanded to rest of the world with European imperialism/colonialism 10. The State is an Institution a. Relatively established formal and informal rules, norms, or traditions, and a set of organizations and regulations that shape political interactions b. Organizations and regulations that shape political interactions c. An organization or activity that is self-perpetuating and valued for its own sake d. Institutions . . . i. Persist, transcends individuals, have intrinsic values e. Allow people to predict certain things, thus is valuable f. Examples of institutions i. Political Institution: Congress, constitutions, bill of rights ii. Social institutions: family, church, education, marriage iii. Economic institutions: markets, money, firms, property right g. Institutions reflect i. The beliefs and attitudes of a people (their political culture) ii. Socioeconomic development The great depression changed govt. role in the economy iii. Significant historical events Respects older traditions like federalism 11. Government, Regime, State a. Government: people exercising authority i. Ex: the administration of Obama ii. Only there temporarily iii. Less institutionalized because they change b. Regime: rules about authority i. Ex: The constitution ii. Democratic regime, separation of power regime iii. More stable than the people in power because they are less likely to change than the government c. State: institutionalized authority in a country i. The computer used by people to achieve power and force their decisions on everyone ii. More stable due to use of technology and tools d. (Less institutionalized) government------> Regime----> State (More Institutionalized) e. People consent to state authority for different reasons: i. Fear benefits, or values 12. Consent and Legitimacy a. How do rules stay in power? i. Subjects consent when they choose not to rebel, therefore consenting to authority ii. Regime are legitimate, rules are legitimate, therefore, people obey and will be better off iii. Mechanisms: rulers can rule through Fear: punish dissent Rewards: bribe supporters Legitimacy: shared idea that rulers have the right to rule b. Traditional: obey out of habit/cultural value i. Ex: United Kingdom-maintaining the authority of the monarchy ii. Japan: rules limiting the power of the state c. Charismatic: personal qualities of leader i. Ex: religious leaders-pope ii. Nelson Mandela iii. Vladimir Putin d. Rational-legal: obey leaders in office, elected leaders i. Most modern states rely on rational-legal legitimacy e. These tend to overlap: Ronald Reagan was a very charismatic individual, but gained authority through a system and process f. Based on Max Weber (1864-1920) 13. State Capacity and Autonomy a. Autonomy: ability of a state to wield its power independently of the public or international actors i. U.S.: Low autonomy at domestic level: (open to pressure), but high autonomy state at international level (gets its way) b. Capacity: to carry out the basic tasks of providing security and reconciling freedom and equality i. Level of control and resources within the government's territorial jurisdiction c. Concept of a failed state: states that have no capacity i. Low capacity states in Africa, Middle East
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'