PSYC 317 - 2
Popular in Sensation and Perception
Tricia Mae Fortuna
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Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tricia Mae Fortuna on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 317 at Towson University taught by M. Paz Galupo in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see Sensation and Perception in Psychology (PSYC) at Towson University.
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Date Created: 09/07/16
317 *Exam: Define and Provide an Example 9/6/2016 Perception - Interpretation 3 Stages of Perception (neural energy from the brain) 1. SELECTION: Many things are going on, Select on where to pay attention. (alters how we interpret the world) a. Automatic Process – always have an impression and interpretation b. Learned Process – choose where to pay attention 2. ORGANIZATION: Organize information 3. INTERPRETATION: Interpreting the information 7 Principles of Perception (KICROAD – not in order) 1. KNOWLEDGE BASED: Interpreting information based on what you know or past experiences (constructing what we’re seeing) 2. INFERENTIAL: Filling in the blanks that have not been taken by our senses and making sense of it (learned concept) 3. CATEGORICAL: Organizing information in categories 4. RELATIONAL: Interpret objects in relation to what we know and to other objects 5. OPERATES AUTOMATICALLY: Happening automatically which tails into our survival 6. ADAPTIVE: The way we interpret things are important for our survival as species 7. DISCRETE: Favor one interpretation of an object at any given time (decide what to do about it) What is Neural Energy? Electro-chemical Language of the Brain ELECTRO – We process information electrically in the neurons (electrical code cannot continue because neurons do not touch each other) CHEMICAL – We process information chemically between the neurons Extracellular Structure of Neurons (D-CB-A – in order) DENDRITES: Receiving information (Branches) Intracellular CELL BODY/SOMA: Decision is made in CELL FIRING AXON: Sending information NEURONS Neurons are either FIRING or NOT Neuron is a Membrane that exists in a FLUID ENVIRONMENT that serves as a boundary from the outside and inside the cell o Extracellular fluid (outside) o Intracellular fluid (inside) S: particles that carry a charge (Positive and Negative charges) Sodium: Na+ Potassium: K+ Electrical Event = Movement of Charge (intracellular vs. extracellular fluids) o POTENTIAL: Separation of Charge of different environment (intracellular vs. extracellular fluids) Resting Potential: No movement of Charge – Cell is at rest Na+ are concentrated outside of cell K+ are concentrated inside of cell Resting Potential = -70mV (millivolts) Stable Potential Inside is more negative than outside Membrane’s permeability is low – but allows some ions to move through IN ORDER TO HAVE AN ACTION POTENTIAL (EXCITES US!) o UNEQUAL DISTRIBUTION OF IONS o SEMI-PERMEABLE MEMBRANE Action Potential: Movement of Charge – “Firing” of Cell (communication is occurring) Starts in Cell body All of None Potential – Occurs with all strength or not o THRESHOLD HAS TO MET - “TRIGGERED” o MEMBRANE’S PERMEABILITY SHIFTS TOWARDS Na+ (Na+ channels open) o Na+ INFLUX – inside the cell o MEMBRANE’S PERMEABILITY SHIFTS TOWARDS K+ (K+ channels open) o K+ EFFLUX – leave the cell o Na+/K+ PUMP – to reset the cell back to RP RP = -70mV 317 AP= -70mV/+40mV/-70mV RP= -70mV Stereotype events that happens the same way in each individual neuron 2 forces of ION movement: Concentration Gradients Diffusion: tendency of ions to move from higher to lower concentration gradient (Na+: independent) Electrostatic Pressure/Electrical Gradient: Like charges repel and opposite charges attract (Na+ attracted to negative charge of cell – K+ repelled by Na+ charge inside the cell then in comes out) o WHY DOES Na+ RUSH IN THE CELL? (Concentration gradient and electrical Gradient) o WHY DOES K+ MOVE? o COMPARE AND CONTRAST SENSTION & PERCEPTION Automatic How we explore the outside world Happens before Cognition Sensation: taking information & biology Perception: making sense of the information & knowledge
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