Weeks 1, 2, and 3 for Intro to PR
Weeks 1, 2, and 3 for Intro to PR PUR 3000 (3A93)
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rae Knopik on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PUR 3000 (3A93) at University of Florida taught by Mickey Nall in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Principles of Public Relations in Journalism and Mass Communications at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 09/07/16
Week 1: What is Public Relations? Careers in Public Relations (PR) ● Growing field ● Relatively new: It’s the idea of taking information and forming it into a well formulated thought. You must know how to write and use social media. ● 6 million people will define their jobs as doing PR in the next 10 years. About 3M now. ○ They define their work as PR but it may only be just one component of PR. It is currently a vague term: ■ Public affairs ■ Special events ■ Marketing comm ■ Govt affairs ■ Comma relations ■ employee/member relations ■ Publicity ■ Media relations ■ Research ■ Counseling ■ Issues management ■ Financial relations ■ Industry relations ■ development/fundraising: who doesn’t need to fundraise? ■ Multicultural relations/workplace diversity ● Best jobs in 2016: ○ If you go into an agency you will go in as a bottom level “account coordinator” IFF (if and only if) you’ve had 2 or more internships. ○ Employers first look at your school, then internships (# of), then go from there to weed down to three for interviewees. They must complete: ■ Timed writing test ■ Case study where they produce something ■ 1 speech from a real politician, so write in 45 minutes a one page press release. ● The average entry level salary is 3738K Future of PR: ● Huge explosion because SM (social media) is helping to define PR. ● It takes a lot of people to support a SM operation for a brand or for a cause. People use events to make a difference. ○ ALS’s Ice bucket challenge raised millions of dollars ○ Everyone loves a walk or a 5K ● 2 reasons people want to be in PR: 1. Due to the number of women in the industry, it is also referred to as the “Pink collar ghetto” 2. Entertainment/events/SPORTS. I want to be in entertainment and events. ○ Entertainment PR= Publicists ○ The above pay the worst but are often viewed as fun and/interesting ○ Sports PR: Working promotions (pre game and tailgate, halftime, post game) there is often no time for traveling. ■ You deal with rape and concussions and dealing with individual players ■ It’s dealing with the problems that happen to or because of individual players and their behaviors. As a PR officer, you must help mitigate those disasters. ● Crisis work is highest paying and this is the future of PR ○ Clients come to agencies and to the PR department and say that they have a PR problem. But you just have a problem, and you need us to fix it. You have a problem, not a PR problem. ○ Problems arise because every american is a citizen journalist, news spreads quickly and maliciously. ● Social media is continuously evolving. The visual is almost if not more important than the words. “Content management.” 140 characters or less, it has taught us how to listen better. Skills and experience for first job ● Applicants need: ○ Excellent writing ○ 2 internships ○ writing and ethics (measured by multiple choice, couple of scenarios) ○ prssa involvement (every employee takes an ethics course and test every single year. ● Most important skills for practitioners in order: ○ Writing ○ Listening ○ problem solving ability ○ Strategic planning expertise ○ Ability to counsel and advise C suite execs: this means being able to train others in speech ○ Researchability ○ business/economics competence: this is very important, aka business classes ○ Expertise in social media Definition of Public Relations: PRSA.org ● Practice that dates back to the early 20th century. ● Defined in many different ways. ○ Early: emphasized press agentry/publicity ○ Modern: relationship building ● “Public relations is a strategic communication process that builds mutually beneficial relationships between organizations and their publics.” ○ Key points: ■ A strategic communication process: mutually beneficial relationships. ■ A process, it evolves and is part of a two way street ● Research and analysis ● Policy formulations ● Programming: what are we going to do and how are we going to do it. ● Communication before execution ● Feedback: was the event successful, was the media responsive? ● Assessment: where we begin the new cycle ● Key words that fame Public Relations: ○ Deliberate ○ Planned ○ Performance based ○ Public interest ○ Two way communication, not just press releases. Take the time to see the public interest ○ Management function ● The PR stereotype like Sex in the City “sounds dirty to me” ○ Sex brokers that sleep their way to the top, some negativity comes from journalism ○ But in reality, PR does not lie or hide, great PR is practiced transparently ● The best campaigns and PR go to Cannes Lions: 6 days in France, big brands comes to compete for best ads. ■ Silver anvils, now bronze anvils ● Worst Campaigns = PR nightmares ○ Bloomingdale’s from last christmas “Spike your best friend’s eggnog when they’re not looking” ○ Budweiser #upforwhatever “no doesn’t mean no tonight.” An integrated marketing perspective sits in the center of many things ● Pat Jackson: Public relations is devoted to the essential function of building and improving human relationships. Week 2: The Evolution of Public Relations Chapter 2 Since the beginning of time we’ve used PR processes ● Must know: Ivy Lee (public info is something we should do, it’s all about the facts) and Edward Bernays (science of persuasion; he’s the father of modern public relations), how PR expanded across the country ● Boston Tea party is known as one of the top 10 publicity stunts in history Introduction: evolution of PR ● Middle ages: Roman Catholic Church (understood propaganda), Bankers of Venice (first investment relations, they promoted that they did loans), Gutenberg’s printing press (biggest machine for PR was born) ● Colonial America: English immigrants (came b/c of religious persecution, so go to America and be apart of a group that can worship freely together: it was done using Word of Mouth [WoM]), Use of PR during the US independence movement (taxation was too much, so people used the Printing Press to advocate for freedom: Sam Adams Boston Tea Party and Thomas Payne ● 1800s: The Golden Age of Press Agentry: PT Barnum (we didn’t care about the truth yetyellow journalism era) ○ Entertainment & Exhibits: Barnum was the pioneer of pretty, entertaining, and exciting reporting (but much of it lacked substantial truth). ● Westward Expansion: Manifest Destiny: let’s open up the midwest by homestead. ○ However, the railroads were really responsible for this change. ○ PR played a huge role through promotion: We need funding to build a railroad to X (The place of your dreams.) Politics and Social Movements ● John Muir: sierra club and how the printed word could influence americans: ADVOCACY. ○ Still the way we do it now. ● Ida Wells: first African American woman to own a newspaper: Advocated the overturning of Lynching and Jim Crow laws while living in the deep south ○ Pioneer in media coverage Early Corporate Initiatives ● John Wanamaker's tactics: utilized public info to merchandize: they started a one way flow. ● Macy’s Tactics: Macy’s day parade 1900 to 1950: The age of Pioneers: ● Ivy Lee: 1st PR agency: Penn Railroad was one of his first clients; Ivy Lee was the first person to connect big business to the media, because he believed that public information was necessary. ○ Penn Railroad wanted a freight rate increase of 5% by the ICC ○ Lee realized that if the people knew why they needed the increase, people would give it to them. So he just released the facts, which demonstrated the value of this freight height in the face of consumer goods. So he laid out an argument, gave the facts, and persuaded his goal. ○ Mining accident at Rockefeller mine b/c of abhorrent conditions. Lee convinced Rockefeller family to fix it and plow some profits back into the communities = Rockefeller foundation = birth of Corporate Social Responsibility (stewardship) ● Edward Bernays: understood the use of science and consumer behavior to bring people together, he listened to people in order inform about your campaign or program Crystallizing Public Opinion (first PR book). Talked about ethics in PR. ○ Public relations model ○ Four classic models ○ PR campaigns ● Arthur Page: first chief communications officer (CCO) corporate communications; page society ○ Six Principles: 1. Truth and Trust 2. Action speaks Louder 3. Listen 4. Anticipate public reactions 5. management and policy making function that affects entire country 6. keep a sense of humor, cool head in times of judgement. ● Eleanor Lambert: produced top ten best dressed women for over 40 years. ● Henry Ford: Be first so you can capture market share. ● Samuel Insull: president of electric company. A utility/Oligopoly should always have an open dialogue with their customers. ● Teddy Roosevelt: big believer in conservation; founded national park service. Teddy Bear. ○ FDR followed suit: march of dimes to find a cure for polio 1950s to 2000: Public Relations Comes of Age ● Influx of women: more than 75% of practitioners are female now. Why? ○ WWII women entered workforce ○ 60s80s more women in universities ○ Women are better at communication and multitasking, and listening (bridge builders) ○ Family friendly profession: work at home etc. ● However: Glass ceiling “pink collar ghetto”: women make 80 cents on the male dollar. ● PR has defined itself from marketing: Marketing=the brand, PR=the reputation ● Digitization of PR ● SM changed the world of PR, it helped PR level the playing field and get more attention and money. ● Next five years: Multicultural world, recruitment of minorities (they are grossly underrepresented in this field), public demand for transparency, expanded role for PR, corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Chapter 3: Ethics and Professionalism Ethics vs. Values ● PR Practitioners are advocates by ethically communicating. It’s not about policing, but advocating standards and a code of behavior. What do Professionals contribute? ● Public Relations society of America (PRSA): an extensive professional development program with 32,000 professional and student members. ○ Largest PR organization but it estimates that it has less than 1% of practitioners. ○ PRSSA is the student member. ○ Code of Ethics, you sign every year ○ Silver Anvil Contest ○ Four step process ○ PRSA code of ethics: 6 core values 1) advocacy. 2) honesty. 3) expertise. 4) independence. 5) loyalty. 6) fairness. ● International Association of Business Communicators (IABC) Based in london. ● International Public Relations Association (IPRA) only about 1000 members in each country. Top dog organization: They sponsor a lot of global research projects and publishes that material. ● Others: specialized organizations in the US. All a part of The Global Alliance for PR and Communication Management. ● Professional codes of conduct and shortcomings: ○ Full disclosure is important: on SM you are supposed to say, “I’m advertising Dr. Pepper because I love it and I have a lot of followers, but they’re also a client of mine.” ○ Conflicts of interest: If I work for Zaxby’s I can’t work for Chick fil A ■ They aren’t actually laws, just a code of ethics. ○ Internet transparency: ■ bloggers: people like third party advocacy, but you need to disclose that you’re being paid in money/benefits/product aka the age of relevance= it’s relevant because my friends and fam do it ○ video news releases: ■ not so normal anymore, but they are essentially clips made by the company that ran as news, they are unethical. ○ financial information: tax codes/regulations and full and fair disclosure ○ corporate practice: a lot of these have to do with payment and what is ethical Prerequisites in PR (5) ○ 1) education. 2) training. 3) literature. 4) research itself. 5) code of ethics. PR as an evolutionary process ● Ethics in the media ○ Relationships with people in the media form over time but you can’t take them to lunch or give them products. Becomes a problem in the Shelter Pubs (magazines), with top advertisers wanting a story in mags. ■ Vogue is 75% ads ■ Product placement blurs the lines because it’s cheaper than ads but usually more effective. Condom company pays the writing guild to write in safe sex in Knocked Up. ○ Earned Media: it can’t be bought. “We will never be a profession until we are licensed.” “Is it a problem or a PR problem?” Reviewing the in class Quiz: In contrast to persuasive communication, public affairs and public information imply that only information is being disseminated Sierra Club’s John Muir exhibited advocacy during his campaign for the conservation and establishment of national parks. Edward L. Bernays proposed the PR model that is still used today. Corporate communications includes advertising, community relations, and employee communications A publicist is a specialist who concentrates on finding unusual news angles that attract media attention. Week 3: Chapter 4: Public Relations Departments and Firms Chapter 12 for exam 1 is very important Corporate Structure Shapes the PR Role ● There are roles in PR, challenges, and attributes Staff Functions: how the organization divides and vibes ● Line Manager: A manager who heads a revenuegenerating department and is responsible for achieving an organization's main objectives by executing functions such as policy making, target setting, decision making. ● Staff People: corporations ● PR job level: depends on the setting in which you work but you always climb from the bottom. ● Efficiency factors of PR: with new generations (millennials)which want to keep moving forward with promotions every few months, so the promotions are smaller and smaller (they are somewhat false, but they keep this age group in the same job and make them feel like they’re moving up and forward). ● Levels of Influence (3) ○ Advisory: Public information (not a huge impact) ○ Concurring Authority: Management and all departments have information (this is the ideal for work) ○ Compulsory Advisory: Management will listen to you (Johnson and Johnson’s tylenol crisis recall) ● As a member of the PR staff, your work indirectly influences the works of others. ○ Can be very frustrating for pr people, because all you can legally do for companies is “recommend.” The role is advisory and consulting. ○ Great writer/listener/collaborator/consensus builder. ○ Be a positive, communicative bridge builder! ○ You cannot be offensive ○ You see jealousy in the PR world because it’s so glamorized. Organization of Departments ● Titles of Executives: ○ Have a PR person in the CSweet: aka at the management table. ● VP of corporate communications ● Specialized sections: part and parcel of big companies ○ aka one person is accountable for internal communications Four areas of Cooperation: 1. Legal department 2. Human Resource Department: where all employees come together to be paid and get benefits. 3. Advertising: some companies use externals for ads instead of an incompany dept. 4. Marketing The Trend Toward Outsourcing: ● About 25% of corporations outsource PR functions ● 7 Eleven 5M free slurpees Case ○ 84th birthday on 7/11/2011 ○ Hired and outsourced Ketchum to increase store traffic and sales and increase the visibility of the brand. ○ RFP: request for proposals ○ SM, videos, news releases, major TV stations and major radio DJs received free slurpees on set and building brand buzz. ○ $10M in potential sales and new store traffic record set that day. ○ 3,000 media placements (all major) ○ Slurpee drink received 15 minutes of airtime on Good morning America ○ 30% increase in fb fans ○ Huge google trend. ○ Won a silver anvil for measurable objectives ● Services provided by outsourced firms: General services, specialty services: Marketing communications, executive speech training (we’re gonna media train you: as long as you believe you can speak), Media analysis, community relations, events management, public affairs (government work), branding and corporate reputation, financial communications Global Reach of PR ● WPP group (more than 15B year in revenue), omnicom, Publicis Group (MSL in America), IBG, ovi lB (3B) ● Brazil, India, China, Russia is the big volume ● Advantages and disadvantages ○ A: objectivity, skills and expertise, legal PR, credibility (reputation and trust) ○ D: superficial grasp of the client’s unique needs, lack of fulltime commitment, need for a briefing periods (these take time and money), Resentment by the internal staff Fees and Charges ● Different ways charged for services Chapter 12: PR and the Law How a PR person can get entangled in legal issues ● Legal problems faced by PR personnel ○ Celebrities can get licensing for their images, so they can go after PR people for using a photo. ○ ViaCom sues youtube users for posting their clips. ○ UF and Disney will find you if you copy their brands without paying fees ● Legal problems faced by PR firms Defamation and give reasons for the public status of corporations ● Libel: printed falsehood ● Slander: verbal falsehood ● Defamation: both together ○ How to avoid a libel suit: be truthful and be able to back it up ○ Film Spotlight had to have a lot of substantial back up info ● The fair comment defense: you’re allowed to be critical and demonstrate your expertise to your audience (the judgement of art and culture). ○ Individual voices are protected by the first amendment but company speak is not. 4 areas where PR professionals need to be sensitive to the issue of privacy 1. Employee communications (reveal very little about employees as a PR) a. Protect the company and the individuals that work there: will it embarrass anyone or cause them harm? b. Leave second hand info alone. c. No racial or age comments 2. Photo releases: vary widely a. You don’t own your own image, the photographer does and you need a release to be signed to distribute those photos. b. Any photo you use has criteria. c. Government images are free 3. Product Publicity and Advertising a. People sign parts of their rights away when film is involved b. Huge unions surrounding this c. Even CDs and phone musics you need licensing for. Even in recitals, if you pay for the event you should be paying for the music you use. d. Consequences: jail time, fines. e. Anything you write, publish, and do as an employee at the university of florida is owned by UF. 4. Media Inquiries by employees Definition of copyright: ideas cannot be copyrighted but the expression of those ideas can be copyrighted. ● Fair use versus infringement ● Copyright in order to prevent use by competitors Trademark Law: registered names protected by law. ● Three guidelines 1. Proper adjectives that should be followed by their noun: not just Kleenex but “Kleenex tissues” 2. Should not be possessive nouns: American Express’s account 3. Never verbs: “I fedexed it” Employees are monitored online on work computers: think Mrs. Clinton ● These protect everyone Why liability and liability insurance is important for companies ● Securities and Exchange Commission ● If you leak stock secrets as a PR person (Martha Stewart), you can be charged as an individual ● Fair disclosure regulation: 1st amendment guarantees freedom of speech but not for companies. ● SarbanesOxley Act: doesn’t do its job ● Avoid unrealistic sales and explanations, announcements of possible mergers or takeovers, no free tips about stocks for a company that is about to go public (it’s called a silent period), you can’t use lawyer speak by the “plain english section,” Relation of the legal domain and PR domain ● Employee blogs by the innovators ○ Rules and regulations must be clear ○ Must be monitored Nike’s free speech battle Liability for sponsored Events ● Money that they spend that they don’t have is for protection ○ Liability insurance ● Necessity of detailed planning ○ Written consent ● Liability insurance is a necessity!
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