Psych II Week 4 Chapter 2 continued
Psych II Week 4 Chapter 2 continued 1005
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Banks on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1005 at University of Colorado Denver taught by Mr. Skyler Leonard in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 68 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology 2 in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Colorado Denver.
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Date Created: 09/07/16
Chapter 2 -Week 4-9/7 Wednesday, September 7, 2016 9:34 AM • Operational definition:A working definition of what a researcher is measuring ○ Examples: "Recovery" from depression: Score of 16 or less on Beck Depression Inventory ○ Chronic worry: Worrying 2 or more hours per day for 4 consecutive weeks ○ How we define things can lead to drastically different conclusions • Confounds:any difference between the experimental and control groups aside from IV ○ Makes IV effects uninterpretable § Example: We are testing a weight loss drug. Everyone in the experimental group is also given a free gym membership, but the control group is not. If the participants lose weight, we can't tell if it's from the drug or the gym membership. • Cause-and-effect ○ If we have Random assignmentand manipulation of an independent variable, we can infer causal relationships between variables ○ Can be called an experiment • Pitfalls in Experimental Design ○ The most common pitfalls in experimental design § Placebo effect:improvement resulting from the mere expectation of improvement □ Also known as "expectation effects" □ Participants may experience improvement because a drug gives hope or causes calmness □ Researchers can account for the placebo effect and expectation effects ® Placebos show many of the same characteristics as real drugs! It's not just in people's heads ◊ Work better if injected than swallowed ◊ More expensive placebos work better ◊ Helps improve symptoms of Parkinson's ® Participants must be blindto their assignment to groups □ Medication Trials - use sugar pills or even fake surgeries □ Therapy Trials- supportive counseling § Nocebo Effect: harm resulting from the mere expectation of harm □ Evil twin of placebo effect ® Participants must be blindto their assignment to groups □ Medication Trials - use sugar pills or even fake surgeries □ Therapy Trials- supportive counseling § Nocebo Effect: harm resulting from the mere expectation of harm □ Evil twin of placebo effect ® Example: Effect of voodoo. People know they are the subject of voodoo can experience pain ® Example: people with allergies may sneeze when exposed to fake flowers • Clever Hans ○ The amazing horse mathematician! ○ Subtle physical cues from the humans guiding the horse through the math questions § Experimenter expectancy effect: hen researchers' hypotheses lead them to nintentionally bias a study outcome □ Example: Clever Hans ® The amazing horse mathematician! ® Subtle physical cues from the humans guiding the horse through the math questions □ Example: Maze bright rats ® Human participants randomly assigned: ◊ Maze bright rats ◊ Maze dull rats ® Participants were deceived into thinking rats had been bread for many generations to run races quickly or slowly ® Reality: the rats weren't specially bred, just randomly distributed to humans ® Results: humans in the "maze bright" condition reported 29% faster in the maze than the "maze dull" rats § Double-blind design:neither researchers nor participants know who's in the experimental or control group □ Taking precautions to avoid fooling themselves or others ® Example: Medication trial ◊ Participants are randomly assigned to receive drug or placebo ◊ Participants do not know which group they are ◊ Researchers that are administering drug (or placebo) and recording results don't know which group the participants are in § Demand characteristics:ues that participants [ick up allowing them to guess at the researcher's hypotheses ◊ Participants do not know which group they are ◊ Researchers that are administering drug (or placebo) and recording results don't know which group the participants are in § Demand characteristics:ues that participants [ick up allowing them to guess at the researcher's hypotheses □ Participants may change their behavior to give the experimenter what they think they want □ Disguising the purpose of the study or using "filler" items can help to decrease these □ Example: Mother -infant study ® Participants suspect the hypothesis ® Is about being a nurturing parent ® May behave in more nurturing way • Does lab research apply to the real world? ○ Most research is conducted using college undergrads § Representative of the entire world? ○ Anderson, Lindsay, and Bushman (1999) investigated lab findings vs. real world findings § Example: compared studies of children being assigned to watch violent television or not □ Findings: Correlation was .73 □ Research on social psych generalized less well ).51) □ Conclusions: ® Lab research often generalizes surprisingly well to the real world ® We should use lab studies and naturalistic observation • New Study: Effects of pre -natal exposure to nicotine on cognitive functioning ○ Recruit 100 pregnant woman § Half to the experimental grpsmoking group § Half to the control gr-not smoking • Ethical Issues ○ Science should be value-neutral, it should only seek the truth ○ But research cant be va-neutral in psych ○ Not like chemistry or physics § No one needs to consider about the emptional development of chemical compounds ○ We cant randomly assign participants to: § Receive brain damage to study the impact on visual perception § To receive nicotine as babies to see if it causes ADHD § CANNOT intentionally cause harm • History of Ethical Issues ○ Tuskegee study ran from 1932 to 1972 § 399 African American men living in rural Alabama diagnosed with § Receive brain damage to study the impact on visual perception § To receive nicotine as babies to see if it causes ADHD § CANNOT intentionally cause harm • History of Ethical Issues ○ Tuskegee study ran from 1932 to 1972 § 399 African American men living in rural Alabama diagnosed with syphilis § U.S. Public Health Service never informed, or treated, the men; they merely studied the course of the disease § 28 men died of syphilis, 100 of related complications, 40 wives were infected, and 19 children were born with it ○ In 1997, President Clinton formally apologized on behalf of the US government ○ The Tuskegee trials led to increased appreciation of protecting ethical rights • Today Ethical Research ○ Today, research has to go through a careful process of review to ensure that it is conducted ethically ○ Institutional Review Board (IRB) □ Every major US research college and university has one □ Reviews all research carefully to protect participants against abuse □ Consist of faculty members and community members ○ Informed Consent: Participants must be informed about purpose of the research, expected duration, potential risks, discomfort, or adverse effects, and right to withdraw at any time. They must have the opportunity to ask questions, then give consent to participate ○ Protection from Harm and Discomfort: Psychologists must take reasonable steps to avoid harm to research participants ○ Justification of deception:2 requirements § (a) researchers couldn’t have performed the study without the deception § (b) scientific knowledge to be gained from the study outweighs the costs § Miligram Obedience studies ○ Debriefingof subjects afterwards-researchers inform participants what the study was about • Ethical Issues in Animal Research ○ Only 7-8% of psychological research uses animals ○ Vast majority are rodents and birds ○ Goal is to generate ideas about the brain and behavior without harming people § Learned Helplessness Studi- comes from belief that there is no control about individuals lives ○ ○ Vast majority are rodents and birds ○ Goal is to generate ideas about the brain and behavior without harming people § Learned Helplessness Studi- comes from belief that there is no control about individuals lives □ Did with dogs because it would be unethical for humans § Surrogate mother studies - examine how strong is the maternal relationship with babies □ Orphaned baby monkeys □ Given to surrogate mothers 1 that was wired but gave them food ® ® 1 that was a soft cloth that smelled like their mothers ◊ Went more to the clot- not all about food ○ Pros: § Direct benefits to humans § Knowledge about physiology of brain and learning principles § Able to test medications ○ Arguments against: § 20 million laboratory animals die every year § Knowledge gained about aggression, fear, learning, memory, and other topics is useless ○ Debate continues today • Statistics: The Language of Research ○ Statistics:the application of mathematics to describing and analyzing data ○ Descriptive statist:umerical ○ Descriptive statistics answer questions like: § What is the average IQ of college students? § What's the average IQ amongst male college students, female college students? § How much does IQ vary among college students? • Types of Descriptive Statistics ○ Central tendency:where the group tends to cluster § Mean: average of all scores □ Add all values, divide by the number of values § Median: middle score in the data set □ Order the score and find the middle on (average if there are two middle values) Mode: most frequent score in the data set § □ Distribution Curve ® Normal (bell-shaped) distribution: 68%, 95%, 99.7% ® Negative skew: tail to the left, majority to the right ® Positive skew: tail to the right, majority to the left ◊ Average is not always the best way to describe □ Distribution Curve ® Normal (bell-shaped) distribution: 68%, 95%, 99.7% ® Negative skew: tail to the left, majority to the right ® Positive skew: tail to the right, majority to the left ◊ Average is not always the best way to describe data ○ Variability (dispersion): measure of how loosely or tightly the data is bunched together § Example: □ Class 1 scores: 18, 19, 20,20,23 □ Class 2 scores: 3, 5, 20, 20, 52 ® Mean=20, Mode=20, Median=20 on both ® What's different about these classes? ◊ Their variability ® Range of Class 1= 15 ® Range of Class 2= 49 § Range:difference between the highest and lowest scores § Standard deviation:measure that takes into account how far each data point is from the mean □ Range vs Standard Deviation ® Data sets could have the same range of points but the data could be more clustered in one vs the other Inferential statistics:allow us to determine whether we can generalize ○ findings from our sample to the population ○ Statistical significance:finding would have occurred by chance less than 1 in 20 times ○ Practical significance:real-world importance § The more people in a study, the more likely it is that we will find statistical significance • How People Lie With Statistics ○ Reporting Under representative stats § Truncating graphs □ Truncating the axis of the graph(zooming in on part of a graph) § Ignoring base rate probabilities (ignoring overall facts) • Evaluating Psychological Research ○ Scientific journals send article submissions to other researchers in the field for peer review ○ The process o eer reviewhelps to identify and correct flaws in research and research conclusions • Evaluating Psychology in the Media ○ Most reporters are not scientists, so consider the source ○ The process o eer reviewhelps to identify and correct flaws in research and research conclusions • Evaluating Psychology in the Media ○ Most reporters are not scientists, so consider the source