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by: Casey Shore

Psychology PSYC 121 06

Casey Shore

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About this Document

These notes cover the 3 main levels of analysis, Science vs Common Sense, definitions, and the scientific Method.
Introductory Psychology
Class Notes
Intro to Psychology
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Casey Shore on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 121 06 at Radford University taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.


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Date Created: 09/07/16
3 Main Levels of Analysis… Biology, Socio-Culture, and Psychology gives us the Biosychosocial approach (Combines all three). Behavior of Mental Process Biological: Psychologiacal o Heredity (genetics) Fears and Expectations o Natural Selection Emotional Response o Genes and Environmental Cognition and Perception Socio-Culture Where you lived -> culture Societal/ Family Norms Peer Influences Models (Media) Current Perspectives: Neuroscience, Evolution, Behavior Genetics, Psychodynamics, Behavioral, Cognitive, and Social-Cultural. ** They all complement each other.** Anger/Aggression:  Neuroscience: what are the brain circuits that are involved in anger?  Evolutionary: How has anger evolved over time to help us with survival?  Behavior: How do heredity experiences influence our individual differences with anger?  Psychodynamic: How are your anger outburst reflect of unconscious hostilities?  Behavioral: Does reality TV influence children?  Cognitive: How does anger affect your thinking?  Social- Culture: Is anger encouraged is some cultures? Science vs Common Sense Intuition: that feeling in our heart- that if we follow is-will provide the most reliable guide. Thinking, memory, and attitude operate both consciously and unconsciously. Hindsight Bias: tendency to believe that you could believe the outcome before you knew it. “I knew it all along”. Phenomenon (Monday moving quarterbacks), it’s easy to think you could change the outcome after common sense describes what has happened not what will happen. Over Confidence: We poorly predict outcomes. **ITNEKT= KITTEN RSOHE =HORSE DWOPRE= POWDER **It takes 3 minutes to solve 3 scramblers for an average person. Science vs. Common Sense:  Mistake random for order.  We like to make since of the world around us.  A random sequential does not often look random. We see what we want. Scientific Attitude: Curious, Skepticism, and Humility. Scientists use theories… Theory: An explanation that organizes observations and predicts behavior. Theories help us… Describe: relationships between large numbers of variables. Organize: our knowledge about variables. Explain: why variables are related. Predict: how variables should be related. Theories are put into the Scientific Method. Scientific Method= If you sleep more, then your test grades will improve. (Hypothesis) Operational Define= sleep or hours of sleep per night, grades- test scores or percentiles. -A good way to test this is to split the subjects into three groups and allow one group to get 8 hours of sleep, one group will get 6 hours of sleep and the last one will get 4 hours of sleep. After that you will record their grades and see who has the best grades, you will need to repeat this several time to make sure the results are accurate (falsifiability). Your hypothesis has to be falsified. Variable: An observable thing that changes. Independent Variable (cause): Causes a change in other variables (sleep). Dependent Variable (effect): Changes because of Independent Variable (grades). Other Examples: -Blood alcohol levels and driving ability. -Class attendance and you GPA. -Hours of work and the size of your paycheck.


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