Plant Science Week 2
Plant Science Week 2 ENVS 150 006
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Haley Kirton on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ENVS 150 006 at University of Louisiana at Lafayette taught by Jenneke M. Visser in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Plant Science in Environmental Science at University of Louisiana at Lafayette.
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Date Created: 09/07/16
Environmental Science (Plant Science) Week 2 Chapter 1 – Botany: The Science of Plants (cont’d.) Major Plant Groups Nonvascular Plants -Examples: -Liverworts (Marchantiophobia) -Hornworts (Anthocerophyta) -Mosses (Byrophyta) -No vascular tissue -No true leaves, stems, or roots -Does rely on water for sexual reproduction -Use spores for dispersal Vascular Plants -Vascular seedless plants: -Examples: -Ferns and their relatives. -Lycophytes. -Does have vascular tissues. -Does have true stems and roots. -Does rely on water for sexual reproduction. -Use spores for dispersal. -Vascular seed plants: -Gymnosperms: -Does have vascular tissues. -Does have true leaves, stems, and roots. -Do not need water for sexual reproduction. -Use naked seeds (wind) for dispersal. -Do not have flowers (has cones). -Angiosperms: -Does have vascular tissue. -Does have true leaves, stems, and roots. -Do not need water for sexual reproduction. -Use enclosed seeds for dispersal. -Has flowers. Ancestors of Plants -Closest relatives are multicellular algae. -DNA. -Multicellular organizations. -Plasmodesmata Chloroplasts. -Cellulose in cell walls. Key Evolutionary Phases Transition to dry land -Sunlight. -Carbon dioxide. -Desiccation/heat. -Ultraviolet light. -Microbes. Rise of Vascular Plants -Branched growth form. -Multiple grow points. -Vascular system. Emergence of seed plants -Diversified form and size. -True leaves. Diversification of flowering plants -Reproduce and disperse more efficiently. History of Plant Domestication Humans used to gather and hunt -Small population. -Nomadic life style. Plant civilization began 10,500 years ago -Large population. -Living in settlements or towns. -Selection of grains. -More seeds per plant. -Nonshattering. -Rice and soybean remnants in Thailand dating to 10,000 years ago. -Yam production in Africa around 10,000 years ago. -Grains emmer and barley remnants in Iran dating to 6750 BC. -Millet production in China around 7500 BC. Effects of Domestication -More and larger fruits or grains. -Thicker stalks. -Seeds easily separated from chaff. -Seeds stay on parent plant. -Changes plant traits. -Changes neutral ecosystems. -Causes soil erosion and degradation. Food Plants: Maize, Rice, and Wheat The grass family, Poaceae -Carbohydrates. -Proteins. -Minerals and vitamins. -Account for more than half of the food calories consumed by the world’s population Maize -Warm Season C, cereals such as maize or corn. -Native to America and was domesticated from the grass teosinte 5,300 BC. -Used for: -Whole grain. -Corn syrup (high fructose). -Bourbon whiskey. -Cooking oil. -Breakfast cereals. -Cornstarch. -Animal feed. -Biofuel ethanol. -Other industrial products. -40% of corn is grown for animal feed. -33% for biofuel. -1.5% for human consumption. -0.2% for seed corn. Rice -Cool Season C, cereals such as rice. -Cultivated for more than 10,000 years, mostly in flooded fields with the nitrogen fixing water fern azolia. -Main staple for people in Asia and feeds more than half the Earth’s population. -90% of rice is grown in flooded field or paddies. -Long grain rice. -High in amylose starch. -Short grain rice. -High in amylopectin, but low in amylose starch -Gluten free. Wheat -Cool Season C, cereals such as wheat. - “The staff of life” – as an important staple for thousands of years. -Only wheat and rye flour contain enough gluten for leavening. -Einkorn. -Emmer wheat. -Durum wheat. -Bread wheat. Other Grains -Sorgum. -Barley. -Millet. -Oats. Legumes -Food, forage, cover, and oil crops. -All produce “legumes”. -Simple, dry, dehiscent fruits. -Except peanuts. -Simple, dry, indehiscent fruits. -Produce their own nitrogen through Rhizobium bacteria in their roots. -Beans, peas, lentils, and peanuts. -An important source of protein. -Soy beans. -Native of Eastern Asia. -40% protein, 20% oil. -Animal feed, industrial use, and food. -Tofu, soy sauce, soy milk, and fermented soybean products like tempeh and miso. -Soy oil. -Contain isoflavones which have several health benefits. -Peanuts. -Native to South America. -25% protein, 45% oil. -Animal feed and food. -Oil and peanut butter. -Allergies to peanuts and contamination with aflatoxins can pose health risks.
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